Friday, May 31, 2019
Symbolism and RealismSymbolism and Realism were distinct but parallel literary movements that swept Europe and much of the world in the late 19th century. Social order was one of the main concerns of Symbolists and Realists, which reflects the unprecedented growth of the middle syllabus and its set across Europe during that time period. Morality and ambition were homogenized and, in some cases, institutionalized to a degree never before seen in civilized connection, and many intellectuals and artists saw this homogenization as a conformist social force that threatened individual perspective. Thus, Symbolists and Realists works lashed out against social institutions and values and were particularly concerned about the domestic sphere, because of its dependence on social norms and shaping effect on individual perceptions were disturbed by the decaying effects of conformity and were troubled by the disconnection between modern individuals. Moreover, Symbolists and Realists argue t hat these three themes of domesticity, decay, and disconnection are linked, a connection explored especially in the Symbolist Charles Baudelaires poem, Spleen LXVIII (1862), in the Realist Leo Tolstoys novella, The Death of Ivan Ilyich (1886), and in the Realist Anton Chekhovs play, The Cherry Orchard (1903). Specifically, these authors argue that the various forms of modern domestic aliveness lead to the ruination of substantial interpersonal connection. As long as one drowns in lifes tedium, asserts Baudelaire, the human experience and ones connections with others decay. Spleen LXVIII describes a winter rain that pours On corpses fading in the near graveyard, On foggy suburbs pours lifes tedium (1550.II 3, 4), and, utterance of a ... ...orms in one way or another destroy ones connections with other human beings. Not only does such accent on forms defy the social nature of humanity, creating generations of socially approved outcasts, but also it severely restricts the indi viduals perspective by forcing it to conform to preordained, soused structures, thereby suffocating the blessing of human creativity. Such restriction does not belong to modern civilization alone, however creativity never exists without limit, for every society upholds rules of conduct that its members are taught to obey. Therefore, contemporary conformity is not new but rather reborn and strengthened. Correspondingly, the task of the modern citizen is ancient, but difficult in its originality to glow a balance between creativity and conformity, between pursuing our own diverse forms and following the accepted forms of society.
Thursday, May 30, 2019
Winstons Predicament in 1984The dystopian world George Orwell created for 1984 is a bleak,emotionless place, grey shaded and unhealthful smelling, full of hate anddistrust. The humans that inhabit it do not live, they ar simplyexpected to exist for the good of the sinister fellowship, a totalitariangovernment, go their leader gazes down at them from every wall,watching their every move. One of these humans, and our protagonist,is Winston Smith. His problems when simplified may seem like theproblems of any other person his pretermit of freedom, his repressedemotions and his desperate loneliness. These problems however, areexasperated by the society he lives in.Thought crime, punishable by death, goes so far as to prohibitfreedom of thought, nevermind speech. The Party want their people tobe simply hate machines, incapable of love or even original thought,it wants them to live by slogans instead of natural reason .By theend of the first chapter Winston believes that what he is th inking andfeeling will eventually get him killed, and by the middle of the bookhe takes to repeating the dogma we are the dead. Right from thebeginning we see this fatalist thinking in all Winston does, as if helives his whole life under a ego imposed death sentence. At times itseems he actually does know he will be caught and has just trained hismind to accept this as inevitable. He knows the illegal diary he keepswill be read and could be used to prove him guilty of thought crime,with its scribbled missives of down with Big companion and hope liesin the proles, and yet he carries on writing in it, pouring out hisrestrained feelings onto the creamy smooth paper. His lack of trustin communications with ... ...escribes the Partys mind of the perfect future society to Winstona boot stamping on a humans face - forever. Its now we realise thatdespite Winstons death, this will communicate in that world if thingscarried on as they were. Its at this point that nearly all hope islost. Next is the betrayal of Julia, the one last thing memoryWinston going. It is a certainty by now that there will be no happyend and that Winston will die and life outside in Air Strip One willremain the same. Winstons predicament is not then to do with love andloss, its to do with futility. For all he did, for all the rules hebroke, for all the rebellion he thought and wrote, nothing changed.The Party remains in power and no future generations were saved.Despite all his good intentions Winston dies broken, discouraging andloveless, a non-person who as good as never existed.
Wednesday, May 29, 2019
Code of Professional Ethics by American be of Certified Public controls installation"A code of professional ethics is a voluntary assumption of self disciplineabove and beyond the requirements of the law. The Code of Ethical Conduct servesthe exceedingly practical purpose to notify the public that the profession willprotect the public interest" (C bey, Doherty p 3). When people need a doctor, alawyer or a certified public accountant, they seek someone whom they can trustto do a good job, not for himself but for them. People fall upon that the hiredprofessional is qualified since they cannot appraise him. They must take it onfaith that he is competent. That is why professionals are distinguished frombusinesses and why there is a need for ethical regulations.The Code of Professional EthicsThe Code of Professional Ethics for public accountants was developed by theAmerican Institute of Public Accountant and allow ins four different categories.The first, Concepts of Professio nal Ethics, establishes major requirements forCPAs in different areas of their day-to-day professional activities. The mainparts of the Code are Independence, Integrity and Objectivity in the boreof public accounting, Competence and technical standards, Responsibilities toclients, Responsibilities to colleagues and Other responsibilities andPractices. Independence has always been the fundamental concept to theaccounting profession. In fact it is the most essential to the practice of allprofessions. The financial reports produced by CPAs would be of little value tothe public unless CPAs maintain their independence. Independence has always beenassociated with integrity and objectivity. Since faults on financialstatements may be the result of either a honest mistake or a lack of integrityit is imperative to associate the notion of independence with the objectivityand integrity. As part of the requirements by the Code of ethics, CPA shouldavoid any relationships that may result in the CPAs becoming dependent on theparticular client. Such relationships include financial interests and clientmanagement. It is very important that the opinion of the CPA reflects theresults of operating decisions taken by the client and not any underlying ideaswhich may be the case if a CPA takes part in the decision making process of thecompany.Another important ... ... ofparticular cases given under Ethics Rulings.In addition to the standards described above, state CPA institutions and othergovernment establish their own ethical standards.ConclusionProfessional ethics is concerned with human demeanor and human relations. Ashuman society becomes more complicated, so do the codes of professional conduct.The purpose of the rules is to attract and increase public confidence anddiscourage doings inconsistent with the image of profession. Publicconfidence may even be more important to the public accountant than to any otherprofessional because CPAs are concerned not only about their cli ents but alsoabout those who rely on their reports. The code of ethical conduct providesmembers of the profession with the rules that were worked out on the historicalbasis to attract the confidence of the public. Therefore, the rules of ethicsare the foundation of public confidence.Works CitedJohn L. Carey and William O. Doherty. Ethical Standards of the AccountingProfession. New York American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, 1966American Institute of Certified Public Accountants. Code of Professional Ethics.New York AICPA, 1977
Labor and the World Trade Organization (WTO)Seven historic period of hatful negotiations at last gave birth to the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 1995, the U.S. labor movement was one of its leading skeptics. A world trade organization, labor supporters argued, would only accelerate the headlong rush to laissez-faire by dismantling national regulations. It would overwhelm attempts by nations to defend living standards and the ability of unions to strife for wages and health and safety lawsand it would make it harder for nations to defend the rights of workers to join unions. Labor lobbied hard against the WTO. But now, ironically, the WTO could become a critical venue for advancing workers rights worldwide. For the WTO has the powerfulness to review nations domestic laws that create unfair trade advantages including, potentially, labor laws. The WTO could define fair trade to include labor standards. Such linkage would be a historic change in the worlds trading regime, and lab ors stake in it. The idea of linking labor rights with trade policy has been around since shortly after World state of war II when efforts to create an international trading regime began in earnest. However, the WTO represents the first opportunity since 1948 to give the issue serious attention. Proponents of linking labor rights to trade rules build on the conventional case for free trade. For international commerce to be free, markets within countries must not be rigged to encourage exports and discourage imports. This is the fundamental convention of free trade and it is the central precept of the WTO. Labor markets are a special case, because they are not conventional free markets. Minimum-wage laws and guarantees of free collective dicker change the wages that market... ...ost marginalized people in Third World countries.Bibliography Reference The WTO and the Battle Over Labor Standards by Martin Khor, Third World Network create by Third World Network Features January 13, 1 997 http//www.wto.org/ Handbook of WTO/GATT Dispute Settlement (Pierre Pescatore, William J. Davey & Andreas Lowenfeld eds., Transnational Publishers, 1991- )(ISBN 1-57105-032-9). Includes full text of WTO/GATT panel reports. Kept up-to-date by unbound supplements. The International Trade Law Reports (London Cameron May, 1996- )(ISSN 1364-9205). looseleaf including decisions of the World Trade Organization panels and the Appellate Body. Law and Practice of the World Trade Organization (Joseph F. Dennin ed., New York Oceana Publications, 1996- )(ISBN 0379213583). Looseleaf service includes Dispute Resolution binders containing WTO panel reports).
Tuesday, May 28, 2019
Contrasting Old M other(a) Savage and The Tell-Tale Heart   Writers may use different techniques to get the same military issue out of the audience. In the short write up, Old Mother Savage by Guy Du Maupassant, a tragic story of a muliebrity who losses alwaysything is told. The story is scary in that it has an ending that one and only(a) would not expect. Also, it can be looked at as a sad story because the mother seems to be sad throughout the entire story. At the end the only thing that she has to be satisfied about is that her murdering four young men can pay back other women feel how she felt when she found out about the death of her son. This story can be compared to Edgar Allen Poes The Tell-Tale Heart, when you talk about the strategies that both authors use to make the audience frightened. They both describe scenes in full detail to give the effect of disgust. However, Du Maupassant, makes the audience feel sorry for the mother in this story twist it into a trage dy instead of horror.   The story starts out with two men walking through a forest. One of the men recognizes an abandoned house. The house is exposit as ...a skeleton still standing, yet ruined and sinister (Du Maupassant, 1). The speaker asks the man he is walking with what happened to the people who lived in it. The other starts explaining that the father was killed and that during the war, the son was sent to fight leaving the mother by herself. It was said that no one bothered her since everyone in the town thought she had money. It was said that she hardly ever laughed, but that was normal for women of that time The women suffer with sad and restricted souls, their life being solemn and hard (Du Maupassant, 2). With this thought in mind it seems as if the peopl... ...t the woman as being a hero. She is what we consider a good guy not because she has killed innocent people, but because she has taken charge of a situation, which is out of the habitual for women to do. Thi s is a far contrast from Poes ending. In his story the speaker confesses to killing the old man because the mans heart, which at that point the reader knows is the speakers conscious is annoying him. At the end of his story the audience is glad that the speaker is caught.   Both Old Mother Savage, by Guy Du Maupassant and The Tell-Tale Heart, by Edgar Allen Poe, offer a look into the other side of tragedies. In both we get to see the reasoning behind the killings of innocent people. The difference between the two is in one case the audience is left feeling sad for the killer, while in the other we are glad that justice is served.
Contrasting Old Mother Savage and The Tell-Tale nervus   Writers whitethorn use different techniques to get the same effect out of the audience. In the short story, Old Mother Savage by Guy Du Maupassant, a sad story of a woman who losses everything is told. The story is scary in that it has an ending that one would not expect. Also, it can be looked at as a sad story because the mother seems to be sad throughout the entire story. At the end the only thing that she has to be satisfied about is that her murdering quaternary young men can make other women note how she felt when she found out about the death of her son. This story can be compared to Edgar Allen Poes The Tell-Tale Heart, when you talk about the strategies that both authors use to make the audience frightened. They both describe scenes in full detail to give the effect of disgust. However, Du Maupassant, makes the audience feel sorry for the mother in this story turning it into a tragedy instead of horror.   The story starts out with two men base on balls through a forest. One of the men recognizes an abandoned house. The house is described as ...a skeleton still standing, yet ruined and sinister (Du Maupassant, 1). The speaker asks the man he is walking with what happened to the people who lived in it. The other starts explaining that the father was killed and that during the war, the son was sent to fight leaving the mother by herself. It was said that no one bothered her since everyone in the town thought she had money. It was said that she fractiously ever laughed, still that was normal for women of that time The women suffer with sad and restricted souls, their life being solemn and hard (Du Maupassant, 2). With this thought in mind it seems as if the peopl... ...t the woman as being a hero. She is what we consider a good guy not because she has killed unsophisticated people, but because she has taken charge of a situation, which is out of the ordinary for women to do. This is a far contrast from Poes ending. In his story the speaker confesses to killing the old man because the mans heart, which at that point the reader knows is the speakers conscious is annoying him. At the end of his story the audience is happy that the speaker is caught.   Both Old Mother Savage, by Guy Du Maupassant and The Tell-Tale Heart, by Edgar Allen Poe, offer a look into the other side of tragedies. In both we get to see the reasoning behind the killings of innocent people. The difference between the two is in one case the audience is left feeling sad for the killer, while in the other we are glad that justice is served.
Monday, May 27, 2019
Overcoming Obstacles What is sp remediateliness? behavior consists of experiences, ch anyenges, and achievements altogether of which are building blocks that essentially piddle mavins path to success. In ones intenttime they lav experience tough and difficult challenges. Sometimes these challenges become unbear equal, especially when the odds are against you. However, going against all odds is something all(prenominal)one is capable of doing, and to switch these challenges everyone necessitate to shoot a never quit carriage in smell. If we develop it, well sweep over quite a bit.Many spate all around the world face challenges and obstacles every day in their daily lives. One while in particular is Nic Sheff a man who was a do doses conveyict and wrote an autobiography called Tweak. In this book, Nic describes himself as a drug addict who sp land ups all his money on drugs instead of fodder and bills. The main person that had a bad influence in his life was an olde r woman named Zelda. Nic similard being with her because he saved her from her ex-husband. However, at the end of the book, Nics parents made a decision for him to go posterior into rehab in Arizona.Nic ever so said that he has hold oute a twelve step programs and went into rehab so umteen times that nothing switch overd. But at the run program, it was distinct, Nic turned into whole different person, finally loving him and life. Also, in the book Nic explains how he faces different obstacles and has an extremely difficult time staying sober. But in the end, because he didnt give up it did pay off in his proximo. He became a more than successful person and a writer who now shares his experiences of his childishness to prevent other teens into getting into the kind of lifestyle he did.Nick isnt the only one who faces these kinds of problems and challenges. About 570,000 people die annually due to drug abuse. Illegal use of drugs is most common among young adults who are ag es 18 to 25 historic period old and that back end change who they are as they nonplus up, financially and mentally. After a person takes drugs and are addicted to it there are trustworthy thoughts and views that society has of them. Society doesnt usually think of drug addicts as good people and they end up losing their respect and reputation as they sire up.If these teens and young adults dont change who they are when they are young, they wont be able to fix themselves as they amaze older which can be a bad influence. Bad habits start as a kid and if you dont change those habits you wont be able to when you get older Many people face challenges and obstacles at a very young age and that can change who they are as they grow up. My grandma faced a very harsh and black childhood. Her father died when she was 17 and that changed her life and her future. It meant she was given some responsibilities since she was the eldest out of her siblings.She had to do many house chores such as cooking, washing the clothes and dishes and open-eyed up early in the morning to get water from a nearby advantageously every day This placed a very banging obstacle in her life at a very young age. She had to leave condition at a very young age because of all the responsibilities she was given and had to submerge these obstacles and face them with gr run integrity. But due to these obstacles that she has overcome, it has changed who she is now. She struggled in life right from when she was just a little kid. But if she hadnt overcome these obstacles she wouldnt open been a very independent woman like she is straightaway.If her father hadnt died when she was young, she probably would prepare had a completely different future and lifestyle, not worrying about anything and going to check and having a better education. Lastly she overcame these obstacles and that changed her attitude and her character. All the experiences of my childhood have shaped me into the person I am today. I wouldnt have been the same kind of person I am today if it wasnt for all the challenges and obstacles I faced and overcame. Fortunately for me I didnt have wake up every day concerned about what Im going to eat and delineate money and survive another day.Some unfortunate people struggle in their daily lives just to just to survive Those people definitely would have different characteristics than me because I dont have to call on right now, instead just focus on my education, go to school and depend on my parents for getting my things I need and providing the basic survival needs and fulfilling my wants. I face challenges in my life too. An example is waking up early in the morning to get ready for school, even though its a very minor thing, it can sure have a huge impact. It impacts my life because then I wouldnt be ready for school on time and I would be late for class very day and cut down the beginning on class which slowly can add up and bite me on a test or assignm ent. We all face many different challenges and obstacles and we have to overcome them in order to make ourselves a better person. Even if its very easy to overcome, you must be mulish to succeed. As a little kid I evermore did my homework. As soon as I got home I would finish my homework sooner doing anything but after a few years, that wasnt the parapraxis anymore. I would usually procrastinate and leave my homework till the last day and I usually wouldnt do a good pedigree.As my piece of music cards arrived I got an S in the homework section meaning satisfactory. My parents were furious because they sure me and believed I would finish my homework but then set out I was actually wasnt and not doing a very good job on it. For the next few years it impacted my life because my parents would check my agenda every day and sign off to indicate to my teacher that parents adage my homework and checked that I actually did it. This was an obstacle in my life because I would have to f inish my homework and then I was allowed to watch T. V or go out.I didnt like this at all but in order to overcome this obstacle and gain my parents trust back, I would have to do my homework. So after that day I always did my homework and eventually got an E in the homework section indicating excellent and gaining back my parents trust. If I had given up, I would have this obstacle hurting me like a needle for a few more years and my parents would constantly be honoring me and making sure I was doing my work and I was on task, which isnt a good thing. Also I wouldnt be able to change as I grow older because if you dont get rid of bad habits they can last forever.In conclusion, it is very important to overcome obstacles because if you dont, it could have a negative impact on who you are. Life is like a rollercoaster, you will never know what challenges and obstacles you will face in life but you have to hold and make sure you overcome these obstacles without giving up Live has its ups and downs, but hold your head high and face those obstacles and overcome them with great determination. There are many trials ahead, be a person who had indwelling desire to succeed, and believe failure was not and never could be an option.Overcoming ObstaclesOvercoming Obstacles What is life? Life consists of experiences, challenges, and achievements all of which are building blocks that essentially create ones path to success. In ones lifetime they can experience tough and difficult challenges. Sometimes these challenges become unbearable, especially when the odds are against you. However, going against all odds is something everyone is capable of doing, and to overcome these challenges everyone needs to have a never quit attitude in life. If we develop it, well overcome quite a bit.Many people all around the world face challenges and obstacles every day in their daily lives. One man in particular is Nic Sheff a man who was a drug addict and wrote an autobiography called Tweak . In this book, Nic describes himself as a drug addict who spends all his money on drugs instead of food and bills. The main person that had a bad influence in his life was an older woman named Zelda. Nic liked being with her because he saved her from her ex-husband. However, at the end of the book, Nics parents made a decision for him to go back into rehab in Arizona.Nic always said that he has done a twelve step programs and went into rehab so many times that nothing changed. But at the last program, it was different, Nic turned into whole different person, finally loving him and life. Also, in the book Nic explains how he faces different obstacles and has an extremely difficult time staying sober. But in the end, because he didnt give up it did pay off in his future. He became a more successful person and a writer who now shares his experiences of his childhood to prevent other teens into getting into the kind of lifestyle he did.Nick isnt the only one who faces these kinds of pr oblems and challenges. About 570,000 people die annually due to drug abuse. Illegal use of drugs is most common among young adults who are ages 18 to 25 years old and that can change who they are as they grow up, financially and mentally. After a person takes drugs and are addicted to it there are certain thoughts and views that society has of them. Society doesnt usually think of drug addicts as good people and they end up losing their respect and reputation as they grow up.If these teens and young adults dont change who they are when they are young, they wont be able to fix themselves as they grow older which can be a bad influence. Bad habits start as a kid and if you dont change those habits you wont be able to when you get older Many people face challenges and obstacles at a very young age and that can change who they are as they grow up. My grandma faced a very harsh and unfortunate childhood. Her father died when she was 17 and that changed her life and her future. It meant s he was given many responsibilities since she was the eldest out of her siblings.She had to do many house chores such as cooking, washing the clothes and dishes and waking up early in the morning to get water from a nearby well every day This placed a very large obstacle in her life at a very young age. She had to leave school at a very young age because of all the responsibilities she was given and had to overcome these obstacles and face them with great integrity. But due to these obstacles that she has overcome, it has changed who she is now. She struggled in life right from when she was just a little kid. But if she hadnt overcome these obstacles she wouldnt have been a very independent woman like she is today.If her father hadnt died when she was young, she probably would have had a completely different future and lifestyle, not worrying about anything and going to school and having a better education. Lastly she overcame these obstacles and that changed her attitude and her cha racter. All the experiences of my childhood have shaped me into the person I am today. I wouldnt have been the same kind of person I am today if it wasnt for all the challenges and obstacles I faced and overcame. Fortunately for me I didnt have wake up every day concerned about what Im going to eat and make money and survive another day.Some unfortunate people struggle in their daily lives just to just to survive Those people definitely would have different characteristics than me because I dont have to work right now, instead just focus on my education, go to school and depend on my parents for getting my things I need and providing the basic survival needs and fulfilling my wants. I face challenges in my life too. An example is waking up early in the morning to get ready for school, even though its a very minor thing, it can sure have a huge impact. It impacts my life because then I wouldnt be ready for school on time and I would be late for class very day and miss the beginning o n class which slowly can add up and bite me on a test or assignment. We all face many different challenges and obstacles and we have to overcome them in order to make ourselves a better person. Even if its very easy to overcome, you must be determined to succeed. As a little kid I always did my homework. As soon as I got home I would finish my homework before doing anything but after a few years, that wasnt the case anymore. I would usually procrastinate and leave my homework till the last day and I usually wouldnt do a good job.As my report cards arrived I got an S in the homework section meaning satisfactory. My parents were furious because they trusted me and believed I would finish my homework but then found out I was actually wasnt and not doing a very good job on it. For the next few years it impacted my life because my parents would check my agenda every day and sign off to indicate to my teacher that parents saw my homework and checked that I actually did it. This was an obs tacle in my life because I would have to finish my homework and then I was allowed to watch T. V or go out.I didnt like this at all but in order to overcome this obstacle and gain my parents trust back, I would have to do my homework. So after that day I always did my homework and eventually got an E in the homework section indicating excellent and gaining back my parents trust. If I had given up, I would have this obstacle hurting me like a needle for a few more years and my parents would constantly be watching me and making sure I was doing my work and I was on task, which isnt a good thing. Also I wouldnt be able to change as I grow older because if you dont get rid of bad habits they can last forever.In conclusion, it is very important to overcome obstacles because if you dont, it could have a negative impact on who you are. Life is like a rollercoaster, you will never know what challenges and obstacles you will face in life but you have to hold and make sure you overcome these obstacles without giving up Live has its ups and downs, but hold your head high and face those obstacles and overcome them with great determination. There are many trials ahead, be a person who had indwelling desire to succeed, and believe failure was not and never could be an option.
Sunday, May 26, 2019
You ar not your job youre not how much m unityy you have in the bank. You are not the car you drive. Youre not the contents of your w an all the same. You are not your fucking khakis. You are all singing, all dancing crap of the world. In this excerpt from the book Fight smart set by Chuck Palahniuk, the principal(prenominal) character screams this at the group of men standing in front of him while laying down the rules before the premiere fight of the night.This repetitive and forceful series of statements is directly challenging exactly what the men have always assumed they hold dear and they above all else know their identities. Identity can be discussed and addressed in many different ways in many diverse media outlets. In the following analyze and critiqued essays by Bruno Bettelheim, Raymond Carver, and Jorge Luis Borges respectively the theme of identity is conferred by the phases of government, alteration, uncertainty, and realization. The first essay to be analyzed is Bruno Bettelheims.In the essay The Introduction to the Uses of Enchantment by Bruno Bettelheim, the generator and psychologist discusses the number of functions that traditional and folk fag tales can and have served. He says in this work that fairy tales are crucial to children and their maturation because they encourage the development of the childrens identity. In a direct excerpt from his essay, this is directly addressed.Communicating in a manner which r each(prenominal)es the uneducated mind of the child as hygienichead as that of the sophisticated adult . . . airy tales carry important messages to the conscious, the preconscious, and the unconscious mind, on whatever level each is functioning at the clock. By transaction with universal human problems, particularly those which preoccupy a childs mind, these stories speak to his budding ego and encourage its development, while at the same time relieving preconscious and unconscious pressures (235). Here, the author descri bes how the fairy tales in question have been able to aide in the development of childrens psychological workings and, in turn, the establishment of the understanding of their self-identity.This is quite easily understood in remembrance of the fairy tale of Little Red Riding Hood, which warns young boys and girls to avoid strangers as well as be extremely cautious when traveling alone. Fairy tales teach children that struggle against severe difficulties in flavor is unavoidable (237). Besides the reading of fairy tales, e very(prenominal) day experience also leads to the change in associative identity. In Raymond Carters Cathedral, there is a very subtle yet directly significant change in identity and understanding within the main character.The main character is a very assumptive man with very little more to say on a subject other than he likes or doesnt like it, almost as if he doesnt really care. When the blind friend named Robert of his wife visits, his entire perspective is cha nged. At the end, the line, My eyes were still closed. I was in my house. I knew that. save I didnt feel like I was inside anything (126), the main character experiences Roberts world of seeing things without real seeing metaphorically, his eyes were opened while they were closed.The main character can now sharply understand that all his preconceived assumptions and notions were just stereotypes when, in reality, they life of the blind man might even be more fulfilling than that of those who can see normally. This essay is showing the alteration in identity within the main character because suddenly, he is open to the idea that Robert is nil that he assumed and is truly someone to revere and look up to. This changes his identity because ones mindset is directly related to the identity that one has. Another type of identity change occurs within the next essay.While there are two specific selected works by Jorge Luis Borges that are intimately associated with identity, the first to be discussed will be The Circular Ruins. In this essay, the author writes of a magician creating the perfect son within his mind and dreaming him into a type of existence separate from the waking life of the magician himself. In the end, he experiences something that changes his entire life and perspective of things. He recalled that, of all the creatures of the world, fire was the wholly one that knew his son was a phantom . . . ut then he knew that death was coming to crown his old age and absolve him of his labors. He walked into the shreds of flame.But they did not bite his flesh they caressed him and engulfed him without heat or combustion. With relief, with humiliation, with terror, he understood that he too was a mere appearance, dreamt by another (49 and 50). This is a explicit change in the magicians identity and the perfect representation of a revision to a previous identity. His encounter with the fire shows that he is actually a dream himself, not his son.This is a change in identity because what he thought was a real life and existence his entire life was actually the dream of another person on a different plane from him. His realization to this fact allows an entire transformation of character and identity as he will begin the road to coping with his new-found knowledge. This is significant because it reinforces the fact that what one person thought they were their entire lives could actually all be challenged and defeat in one brief and exact moment.Another way of challenging the identity of a person is through with(predicate) a spiritual enlightenment that leads to merely recognition of ones self. In the second analyzed essay by Jorge Luis Borges, there is a somewhat similar only when slightly neutered message of identity. In The Writing of the God, the main character Tzinacan is tortured and starved by the conquistador Pedro de Alvarado. Tzinacan goes through a change of identity when he suddenly goes through a stage of enlightenmen t from being imprisoned and left to his own devices in a sandy prison. . . there occurred union with the deity union with the universe. . .I saw a wheel of enormous height, which was not before my eyes, or behind them, or to the sides, but everywhere at once. This wheel was made of water, but also of fire, and although I could see its boundaries, it was infinite. It was made of all things that shall be, that are, and that have been, all intertwined, and I was one of the strands within that all-encompassing fabric. . . (253). This direct excerpt shows Tzinacans sudden moment of understanding and knowledge.Here, is an abrupt recognition that he is not one man with one status or one purpose but is preferably one with everything and nothing at once. His acknowledgment that he is linked with all things but without all those other things and parts to the universe, he ceases to exist at all. This is an drill of an alteration to identity because Tzinacan goes from being a high and mighty priest who was captured and tortured to simply another thread in universal web of occurrences with each creature created by a higher being. Identity is how we as human beings associate or disassociate ourselves with others.We find our own identity from life experiences and divide that identity from the pressures of society when compared to ones own strength of will. A young woman may dissipate her identity by the men she is gnarly with, or the young man might engorge his identity by the job promotion he just received and the luxurious cars he drives. These identities are ever-changing and expansive, within our own minds and within the population of history. From the fairy tales we are read as children to eye-opening events in our late-adulthood, each happenstance of personality or take to be helps shape who we are and who we portray ourselves to be.
Saturday, May 25, 2019
The bedrock of the American judicial process is the honesty of protestes in trial. Eyewitness deposition can make a deep impression on a jury, which is often exclusively assigned the role of sorting out credibility issues and do judgments almost the truth of witness statements. In the U. S. , there is the possibility of over 5,000 wrongful convictions each year because of mistaken witness appellations. The continuous flow of media stories that prescribe of innocent people being incarcerated should serve as a signal to us that the human identification process is rife with a large numerate of error risks.These risks wee been largely supported by look into. Unfortunately, a jury r atomic number 18ly hears of the risks therefore, witness testimony remains a much-used and much-trusted process by those who be uninformed m either cartridge clips, lawfully uninformed. In cases in which eyewitness testimony is used, more often than not, an adept will not be deed overed to testi fy to the faults of eyewitness identification. Thus, the uninformed stay blissfully ignorant of the inherent risks tough in eyewitness identification testimony.Too often, these blissfully ignorant people make up a jury of our peers. (McAtlin, 1999). According to McAtlin, there ar three parts of an eyewitness testimony (1) Witnessing a crime as a victim or a bystander involves watching the event while it is happening. (2) The witness must memorize the details of the occurrence. (3) The witness must be able to accurately recall and broadcast what he or she precept. Studies of wrongful conviction cases have concluded that erroneous eyewitness identifications are by far the leading cause of convicting the innocent.Several studies have been conducted on human fund and on subjects propensity to remember erroneously events and details that did not occur. When human beings try to acquire, retain and retrieve information with any clarity, suppositional influences and common human fail ures profoundly limit them. The law can regulate some of these human limitations others are unavoidable. The unavoidable ones can make eyewitness testimony devastating in the courtroom and can lead to wrongful convictions.Unfortunately, memories are not indelibly stamped onto a brain video cassette tape. An event stored in the human memory undergoes constant change. Some details whitethorn be altered when new or different information about the event is added to the living memory. Some details are simply forgotten and normal memory loss occurs continually. Even so, witnesses often become more confident in the nicety of their memories over time. The original memory has faded and has been replaced with new information. This new information has replaced the original memory because the natural process of memory deterioration has persisted.Furthermore, individual eyewitnesses transmute widely in infallibility and reasoning. . (McAtlin, 1999). Studies of wrongful conviction cases have concluded that erroneous eyewitness identifications are by far the leading cause of convicting the innocent. For example, the Innocence calculate of Cardozo School of Law reports that of the first 130 exonerations, 101 (or 77. 8 percent) involved mistaken identifications. But exactly how often eyewitnesses make tragic mistakes that lead to the punishment of innocent persons is unknown and probably unknowable.One of the infamous cases where mistaken identity led to the wrongful conviction and execution was Gary Graham. Grahams case authoritative widespread attention, in part because of substantial evidence indicating that he was innocent of the murder charge, and the indisputable fact that his court-appointed trial lawyer failed to mount a effective legal defense. Graham was convicted of killing grocery store clerk Bobby Lambert on May 13, 1981 during a robbery attempt. Graham was 17 years overaged at the time. There was no physical evidence linking him to the crime and only one eyewitness who identified him as the murderer.Eyewitnesses who told police investigators Graham was not the slayer were never called to testify at trial by Grahams lawyer. Constitutional Protections In Neil v. Biggers, the U. S. Supreme Court established criteria that jurors may use to mensurate the reliability of eyewitness identifications. The Biggers Court enumerated several factors to determine if a suggestive identification is reliable (1) the witnesss opportunity to view the suspect (2) the witnesss degree of attention (3) the accuracy of description (4) the witnesss level of certainty and (5) the time between incident and confrontation, i. . , identification. Courts today continue to allow into evidence suggestive identification testimony. Currently, courts consider the admissibility of identification testimony under a Fourteenth Amendment procedural due process compend. If a court determines that a pretrial identification was unnecessarily suggestive, it then ascertains whether the suggestive procedure gave rise to a substantial likelihood of irreparable misidentification. A court will limit a substantial likelihood of irreparable misidentification only if the identification is found to be unreliable.Therefore, even if the court concludes that a police identification procedure was suggestive, it may be admissible if the court finds that the identification is nevertheless likely to be accurate. A court will balance the suggestiveness of the identification procedure against the likelihood that the identification is correct, resulting in an unprincipled rule of law that turns on the courts subjective assessment of the defendants guilt. Issues That Impact an Individuals Testimony A grumpy look at how memory functions and how suggestion operates llustrates why participation in unregulated lineups creates unreasonable risks of misidentification. Identification procedures differ from other police investigatory procedures in that they solely rely on hum an memory. Human memory consists of three basic governances (1) encoding, (2) storage, and (3) retrieval. Encoding is the initial processing of an event that results in a memory. memory is the retention of the encoded information. Retrieval is the recovery of the stored information. Errors can occur at each step.Contrary to common understanding of memory, not everything that registers in the central nervous system is permanently stored in the mind and particular details become increasingly inaccessible over time. According to Loftus and Ketchum, Truth and reality, when seen through the filters of our memories, are not clinical facts but subjective, interpretive realities. Because these processes are unconscious, individuals ecumenically perceive their memories as completely accurate and their reporting of what they remember as entirely truthful, no matter how falsify or inaccurate they, in fact, may be.An individuals memories become distorted even in the absence of external sug gestion or inhering personal distress. Naturally, people tailor their telling of events to the listener and the context. (Loftus & Ketchum 1991). Many conditions such(prenominal)(prenominal) as fear, lighting, distance from the event, surprise, and personal biases all affect memory and recall. Human memory is indeed delicate, especially regarding victims and witnesses of crimes. Fear and traumatic events may impair the initial acquisition of the memory itself.At the time of an identification, the witness is often in a distressed emotional state. Many victims and witnesses experience substantial shock because of their traumatic experiences that continue to affect them at the time of identification procedures. In a particular case in court, the psychologist can determine the reliability of the evidence of a particular witness and enable the judge and the jury to put the proper take account on such witnesss testimony. For example, a witness may swear to a certain point involving the estimation of time and distance.The psychologist can cadency the witnesss accuracy in such estimates, often showing that what the witness claims to be able to do is an impossibility. A case may flexible joint on whether an interval of time was ten minutes or twelve minutes, or whether a distance was three one hundred or four hundred feet. A witness may swear positively to one or both of these points. The psychologist can show the court the limitations of the witness in making such estimates. Overview of Psychology and LawThe service of psychology to law can be very great, but owing to the necessary conservatism of the courts, it will be a long time before they will make much use of psychological knowledge. Perhaps the greatest service will be in find out the credibility of evidence. Psychology can now give the general principles in this matter. Witnesses go on the stand and swear to all sorts of things as to what they heard and saw and did, often months and even years previously . The expert clinical psychologist can tell the court the probability of such evidence being true.Experiments have shown that there is a large percentage of error in such evidence. The additional value that comes from the oath has been measured. The oath increases the liability of truth only a small percentage. Psychologists sometimes provide expert testimony in the form of general testimony where theory and research is described and applied to a problem before the court. The expert would not provide opinions about any party involved in the case before the court, but might give opinions about substantive research that is relevant to the issues. Role of Psychology Professional in Forensic MattersClinical-forensic psychologists are utilize in a variety of settings including state forensic hospitals, court clinics, intellectual health centers, jails, prisons, and juvenile treatment centers. Clinical-forensic psychologists are perhaps best known for their assessment of persons involve d with the legal system. Because of their knowledge of human behavior, abnormal psychology, and psychological assessment, psychologists are sometimes asked by the courts to evaluate a person and provide the court with an expert opinion, either in the form of a report or testimony.For example, clinical-forensic psychologists oft evaluate adult criminal defendants or children involved in the juvenile justice system, offering the court information that might be relevant to determine (1) whether the defendant has a mental disorder that prevents him or her from going to trial, (2) what the defendants mental state may have been like at the time of the criminal offense, or (3) what treatment might be indicated for a particular defendant who has been convicted of a crime or juvenile offense.Increasingly, clinical-forensic psychologists are being called upon to evaluate defendants who have gone to trial and who have been found guilty and for whom one of the sentencing options is the death p enalty. In this case, psychologists are asked to evaluate the mitigating circumstances of the case and to testify about these as they relate to the particular defendant. Clinical-forensic psychologists besides evaluate persons in civil (i. e. , non-criminal) cases.These psychologists may evaluate persons who are undergoing guardianship proceedings, to assist the court in find whether the person has a mental disorder that affects his or her ability to make important life decisions (e. g. , managing money, making health care decisions, making legal decisions). Clinical-forensic psychologists also evaluate persons who are plaintiffs in lawsuits, who allege that they were emotionally harmed as a result of someones wrongdoing or negligence.Clinical-forensic psychologists may evaluate children and their parents in cases of divorce, when parents cannot agree about the custody of their children and what is best for them. Clinical-forensic psychologists are sometimes called on to evaluate children to determine whether they have been abused or neglected and the effects of such abuse or neglect, and offer the court recommendations regarding the placement of such children. In addition to forensic assessment, clinical-forensic psychologists are also involved in treating persons who are involved with the legal system in some capacity.Jails, prisons, and juvenile facilities employ clinical psychologists to assess and treat adults and juveniles who are either awaiting trial, or who have been adjudicated and are portion a sentence of some type. Treatment in these settings is focused both on mental disorders and providing these persons with skills and behaviors that will decrease the likelihood that they will re-offend in the future. Clinical-forensic psychologists employed in mental health centers or in private practice may also treat persons involved in the legal system, providing either general or specialized treatment (e. g. treatment of sex offenders, treatment of viole nt or abusive persons, and treatment of abuse victims).Conclusion Studies confirm that unregulated eyewitness testimony is often hopelessly unreliable. Misidentifications are the greatest single source of wrongful convictions in the United States. Yet courts current due process analyses are unsuccessful in ensuring fair procedures and preventing wrongful convictions. A due process analysis alone is inadequate, in part because a due process analysis is essentially a fairness inquiry, and courts regard it as unfair to exclude a correct, yet suggestive identification, from evidence.
Friday, May 24, 2019
Is agribusiness in Gujarat on a different growth trajectory? Agriculture is the locomotive of our economy and a prosperous rural economy based on horticulture will ultimately make the nation prosperous Sardar V eitherabhbhai Patel Gujarat has consistently attracted a substantial swing of Indias reclusive investment, primarily in its industrial heavens. This has resulted in the read accounting for al al closely 16 shargon of industrial drudgery of India. Al more or less 50 percentage of the countrys refined petroleum products and 45 percent of the drugs and pharmaceuticals be a identical accounted by the differentiate.The assures exports stood at 14 percent of Indias centre exports, exhibiting a strong global orientation of its products. Thus, the state is often pitched as the growth engine of the country. But, how has husbandry fared as a comp anent of this great growth novel? Well, till the recent past, it had non accredited the attention of re searchers, policy makers and writers. However, in the recent past, a spate of articles on the subject res publica stating the buoyancy of the agriculture domain since the year 2000, has hust direct a expression the attention to this less researched subject.These reports suggest that agriculture sector in the state has save towering growth rates, virtually unchallenged by the rest of the country. Between the period 2000-01 and 2007-08, agriculture grew by a phenomenal 9. 6% per year in Gujarat, despite predominantly being arid / semi-arid. The reasons for this phenomenal agriculture growth save by IFPRI & IWMI1 in its report are some viz technology back up agriculture, state initiated urine supply supply conservation measures, farm consultation measures etc.There are many opposite arguments put forward by other writers and thinkers on the subject viz Gujarat agriculture and its bringping is less traditional and more(prenominal) commercial message in nature, and Gujarat farmers are more commercially vigilant and stimulate a dampen appreciation of the options and the prospects in the long-life term. Yet others observe that the growth in agriculture is actored by dairy farm farm sector and its cooperatives for which the state is truly primally known.There are too views opined that the state was the first to amend the laws goerning the marketing of agricultural produce and it alike opened up contract demesne, thus bringing into direct play the private buyers. There are many who suggest that the state has been fortunate and is certifyed by accompanimentors much(prenominal) as good monsoon for most of the decade, increasing minimal certification prices from the Centre and the spread of Bt like plant, a lucrative cash crop. But some of these benefits listed were available to other parts of the country as well and no other state could record these rates of growth consistently2.A few critics in addition argue that the data stemmad is non reliable and yet some experts feel even questioned the cost to the analysis by IFPRI3. Gulati et al (2009) Agriculture performance in Gujarat since 2000- can it be a divadandi (lightho usance) for other statesan IFPRI, Washington & IWMI, Colombo, publication 2 Ref http//www. moneycontrol. com/ news/economy/how-did-gujarat-becomefarming-paradise_447382-2. html 3 As the reference points ie start and end eld of the analysis have been abnormally bad or very good wonderively making the hear biased for a fair analysis. 1 Electronic copy available at http//ssrn. com/abstract=2080876 Before acquire into facts and figures, its important to appreciate the context of this setting the states agriculture is predominantly rainfed with a cropping intensity of 115 %. 60 % of its 226 development blocks are classified as droughtprone and 9 blocks are affected by desertification. Given these facts how has the state consistently clocked such massive growth rates? This paper attempts to decode some of these rejoinders. The paper is divided into two parts.The first part looks at the review of the agriculture sector, its sub-sectoral growth, looking at the facts and figures opus the later part attempts to trace key factors for growth in agriculture sector, its key drivers and similarly the wreakes that enabled that growth if any. Some facts close to Gujarat agriculture The state has a total geographical expanse of 198 lakh ha, of which 98 lakh ha is utilized for agricultural subprograms. There has not been much changes in the land area down the stairs cultivation in the recent past, though some borderline changes have been seen in the gross cultivated area.Ab break two third of the area of the state is under semi arid or arid region. This tract receives depleted and uneven rainfall and is also prone to climatic hazards. The TCA (Total cropped area) in the state in 2000-01 was 98 lakh ha and the latest available statistics suggest that the TCA is 103 lakh Ha showing a margina l increase in the cultivated area. The present irrigated area is about 38 %. The state has a fantastic mix of crops food grains form a clear 30 percent of the cultivated area as against the 62 % at the national direct.Oil spills and cotton, two major crops occupy 26 % and 16 % of the TCA as of 2002-03. Pulses occupied about 10 % of the cropped area, while spices, fruits and vegetables accounted for 2 % of the cropped area of the state. The average usable holdings in Gujarat is about 2. 34 ha, which was higher(prenominal)(prenominal) than the national level averages. The pattern of operational holdings has actually change magnitude from 35. 2 lakh (1990-91) to 41. 5 lakh holdings. The state also has certain unique advantages in agriculture, as there are 8 agro-climatic zones that provide suitable environment for growing a wide sort of crops.High value non-food grain crops, offering opportunities for value addition, dominate agriculture in Gujarat. Of the total workforce in the state agriculture labour constituted 69 % in 1981 ,which significantly came down to 52 %. state GSDP and agriculture The total GSDP for the state has been clocking sound growth rates, the secondary and tertiary sector, has recorded higher growth rates, when compared with agriculture. The performance of the agriculture is also higher when compared to other states and formed 14. 5 % of the total GSDP in 1999-00.However, there has been fluctuations in agriculture payoff over the years, the latest available figures for 2008-09 shows a decline in the agri share of 2 Electronic copy available at http//ssrn. com/abstract=2080876 GSDP to 12. 5 % . The GSDP in quantum terms is presented in the fol wiped out(p)ing diagram Contrisolelyion of Agri. to area GSDP (Rs. Lakh) 300000 250000 200000 150000 173654 special K00 109861 140598 153079 189436 213092 228459 50000 25035 23222 28577 27815 32408 28506 15975 0 1999-2000 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09Agriculture (including A H) Total GSDP The relative growth rates for primary, secondary and tertiary sector for the last 10 years recorded in the state of Gujarat is presented in the Annexure1. The average annual growth rate of agri GSDP for the state and all India is presented below in the following table. Agri Sector / year 1980-81- 1991-92 Rate of growth Average annual CV 1992-93 1999-00 Average annual CV 2000-01- 2006-07 Average annual CV obtain Gulati et al (2009) ibid Gujarat 6. 6 7. 4 6. 9 4. 3 9. 6 2. 2 All India 3. 8 1. 5 3. 8 1. 5 2. 7 2. 1The Co-efficient of variation (CV) recorded for agri GSDP growth rates in the state in the initial decades (1980-90) is rather high (pl see preceding(prenominal) Table), while it has shown a substantial fall in the 2000-01 to 2006-07 period. Thus, there is a clear indication of the volatility in agricultural production has been controlled significantly. In an independent study on Gujarat agriculture under taken by IIM-A4 over a period of five decades has indic ated that agriculture in Gujarat has been validatory and consistent for the past two decades. However, a significant acceleration has been noticed during the last decade.The statistically analyzed study states that agriculture that turned almost first (in 2001-02) and then rest of the economy thereafter (in 2002-03). Study also quotes that the terms of trade for 4 Dholakia, R & Datta, S (2010) High growth trajectory and structural changes in Gujarat agriculture, IIM publication 3 agriculture in relation to non-agriculture sector played a major role in incentivising growth in agriculture. Irrigation Gujarat is a irrigate deficit state with 70 percent of its geographical area classified as semi-arid and arid land types.The ultimate irrigation potential of the State from Ground weewee and surface body of pee is assessed at 64. 88 lakhs ha, out of which the ultimate irrigation potential done surface wet as per the latest estimate is assessed at 39. 40 lakh hectares, which ackno wledges 17. 92 lakh ha to be irrigated by dint of Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP). Thus, of total gross irrigated area, about 17 percent is irrigated by canals and 82 percent by privately owned tube and other wells thus agriculture ( irrigated) in Gujarat depends predominantly on fusee water supply. Source of irrigation, 00 Ha -Gujarat (2004) 27,364(80. %) 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 Canals Wells / Tubewells Tanks Other sources 5,997(17. 7) 262 (0. 7%) 252 (0. 7%) At present Gujarat has about 17 major irrigation projects and 169 medium irrigation schemes across various talukas plan outlay for 2008/09 for major and medium irrigation projects was Rs. 1146 crores. The largest of all these is the Sardar Sarovar Project (SSP). According to the corporation the main canal is about 458 km long up to the Gujarat-Rajasthan border and is almost complete with water running into Rajasthan. The designed discharge capacity is 40000 cusecs at the head reach.The total see to it Area of the SSP is 18 lakh ha, covering around 3112 resolutions in Gujarat, of which and 3 lakh ha is state to be complete. some other issue, which has been unique to Gujarat, has been the issue of salinity ingress (1. 2 lakh ha) affecting the coastal districts and Kutch, due to seepage of seawater. There are a few initiatives taken with the funding tide over of NABARD to address the issue and stop further salinity ingress. Thus, the scarcity of water was so profound, which had triggered peoples movements for water conservation. There are documented evidences of such 4 eopleled initiatives in the Saurashtra region. However, this was translated into a mass movement with the organization announcing the Sardar Patel Participatory piss Conservation Project in 2000 for the construction of water product and commonwealth water recharge expressions like check dams, boribunds, resolution and farm ponds (khet talavadis) under a 6040 scheme in which government contributed 60% of the cost while the farming communities contributed 40%. However, the real bear upon is said to have triggered after the drought of 2002, when this process gained momentum.It has been a roaring success and stories stand up of conversion of barren lands into fertile farms, rising holds and falling costs of cultivation across the state. The tangible result of this initiative is visible from the tick of the ground water development blocks in the state. Irrigation blocks 2002 Irrigation Blocks 2007 Over Exploited 14% Over Exploit ed 1 2% Crit ical 2% Critical 6% Safe 43% Semi crit ical 1 2% Saline 6% Saf e 68% Semi comminuted 31% Saline 6% These developments have increase water supply for agriculture either directly by supplying water for irrigation or indirectly by recharging ground water levels.Before the start of this movement unless about 43 percent of the blocks were considered as safe and 37 percent of the blocks were critical or semi-critical. However, after a span of 5 years, in 20 07, the groundwater estimate indicated that percent share of safe blocks rose to 68 percent and critical and semi-critical blocks were a mere 18 percent. Its also informally understood that ground water level has increase by 3-5 meters in Saurashtra and Kutch regions5. Independent assessments by other International agencies like IWMI6 have also shown very positive electric shock of this initiative.But apart from increasing water supply, there have been other efforts by the state government to regulate water use for agriculture and also conserve the harvested water and minimize wastage and thus increase efficiency. Two such initiatives of the state government were introduction of micro irrigation systems like dribbling irrigation and come across capable propaganda for the same by dint of an exclusive government promoted company GGRC (Gujarat Green Revolution Company). The other initiative has been 5 6 Discussions with Director of Agriculture, GOG Shah, T et al (2008) out of si ght of Gujarats agrarian miracle after 2000.Economic and political weekly Vol 44 Issue 52 pp 45-55 5 Joytigram project for provision of separate electricity feeder lines for agriculture purpose, thus regulating and monitoring its use. The government has also initiated about 1918 watershed-based programmes (since inception, covering schemes like DDP, DPAP and IWDP for drought proofing, environment protection and employment generation) covering about 19. 65 lakh ha NABARD has also supported some of these endeavors. Thus, the watershed-based approaches cover about 20 % of the cultivated area of the state.More details of water conservation measures have been provided in the later part of this write up. Based on data released by Directorate of Economics and Statistics, gross irrigated area increased from around 37 (1999-00) to 44 lakh ha (2006-07) an increase of 16. 9 percent. Further, the total irrigated area under all crops has self-aggrandising at 4. 4 percent per annum from 2000-01 to 2006-07, and at 6. 3 percent per annum from 2002-03 to 2006-07. Crop patterns Since, 1960-62 the area under food crops in Gujarat was only 47 percent of its ground-controlled approach, which gradually came down to 38 percent in 2008.Though the net put area has not shown much changes, but the accessibility of irrigation water did increase Rabi coverage in Saurashtra, kutch and north Gujarat. The reports suggest about 6-8 lakh ha of additional area being brought under Rabi in the recent past. This is also evident from increase in cropping intensity by about 4-5 percent in the last decade. Gujarat State Gross Cropped & Gross Irrigated Area (000 Hect. ) 16000 14000 12000 degree Celsius00 10995. 5 10634. 8 8000 10745. 9 10497 10791 10630. 7 11421 11256. 9 6000 4000 4111. 2 4279. 5 2000 2334. 4 2910. 5 3499. 4 3342. 1 3572. 8 3637 1980-81 1990-91 1995-96 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-2004 2004-2005 Gross Irrigated Area Gross Cropped Area A comparison of ground-controlled approach t o Gross Irrigated Area (GIA), indicates a shifting foreshorten in 1980-81 only 22 percent of the GCA was irrigated and it increased by 5 % to 27 percent in 1990-91, however, subsequently increased to 38 percent in 2004-05. The crop patterns indicate that cotton oil inseminates like groundnut, followed by cereals formed the major crops in the state. However, there has been clear 6 switch in the cropping patterns, while area under rice has remained stagnant, but the area under another cereal crop stubble increased from 3. 2 percent in 196061 to 9. 67 percent in 2007-08, partly because of the availability of water. Amongst cereals sharpest decline in area has been reported for jowar from 13. 17 percent in 1960-91 to 1. 22 percent in 2007-08. translation from jowar/bajra to Wheat 000 Ha 1400 1200 1274 1154 1162 1158 1129 1161 1072 1016 946 926 922 1091 constant of gravitation 800 859 734 755 703 600 518 400 442 358 304 479 200 241 222 212 166 161 2004-2005 129 2005-2006 147 2006-200 7 174 128 2007-2008 2008-2009 0 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 Jowar Bajra WheatThe percentage area under oilseeds has slightly improved from 24 percent of GCA to 26. 17 percent in 2007-08. Groundnut which is considered as one of the most sensitive crops to moisture stress has shown a marginal decline from 22 percent of GCA to 17 percent . However, other oilseeds crops like castor , sesamum and rapeseed have made substantial gains during this period. Cotton, one of the predominant crops, which had 17. 56 percent coverage of the GCA in the state in 1960-61, further increased its coverage to 20. 54 percent of the GCA. Thus, there are clear trends in crop pattern changes in the state.Production and productivity of crops As indicated earlier, Gujarat agriculture is known for its volatile fluctuations in production and productivity. However, the Coefficient of variation has been drastically reduced in the recent years. The area, production and productivity (APY) of two categories of crops viz, food grains, oilseeds and cotton for the last 10 years are presented below in graphical format. The trends does indicate that o Sharp decline in production and productivity in all crops during 2002-03 caused by the drought during the period. This is more profound in oilseeds and cotton. The decline was sharpest in case of oilseeds. Amongst the food grains, two principal crops viz pale yellow berry and rice exhibited sharp increase in productivity. Food grains have not exhibited any 7 increase in area, coverage but production increases in wheat has been largely due to increased rabi coverage. Gujarat State A P Y patterns for Food Grains 9000 8206 8000 7000 6737 6000 5254 5588 5000 4438 3718 3999 3000 3185 3861 3769 4395 6345 5882 6345 4000 4481 4209 3984 4188 3845 3983 2000 1601 1000 1361 1110 857 0 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 1166 1650 1403 1404 1831 1593 Area (000 Hec. )Production (000 tons) Productivity ( Kg/hec) Gujarat State A P Y patterns for Oilseeds 7000 6000 5850 5000 4657 4699 4000 3932 3747 2930 3000 2864 2000 1826 2861 1738 2861 2900 1878 1905 1572 1000 638 0 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 Area (000 Hec. ) 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Productivity ( Kg/hec) 607 1309 979 648 3071 2994 2962 3020 2856 2852 2874 1648 1368 1057 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 Production (000 tons) Gujarat State A P Y patterns of Cotton 9000 8276 8000 6872 7876 7014 7000 5903 6000 5000 4280 4000 3000 2146 2000 1611 1000 226 0 1999-2000 2000-2001 2001-2002 2002-2003 Area (000 Hec. 2003-2004 2004-2005 2005-2006 Productivity ( Kg/hec) 2006-2007 2007-2008 2008-2009 130 165 191 1282. 6 1675 1684. 6 1737. 2 1883. 9 1673. 4 1695 429 1920 523 2011 581 564 581 507 2372 2422 2354 Production (000 accumulates) 8 ? ? However, the coverage of the low value kharif crops like bajra has seen a switchover to other higher value kharif crops viz cotton/ hybrid maize. No significan t changes in area has been noticed in respect of oilseeds, while its productivity has increased, mainly because of the crop changes / switches to high productivity crops like castor.Further the oilseeds production patterns have shown significantly wide fluctuations because of its sensitivity to water availability. o The most significant increase in the production patterns has been noticed in respect of cotton since the year 2002-03. The GOI had allowed production of genetically modified Bt cotton for three years from April 2002. The productivity of cotton per ha also increased from 191 kg / ha in 2002-03 to 581 kg/ha in 2007-08, mainly because of the introduction of Bt cotton. Gujarat is also said to have highest number of cotton growers (14 lakh ). In 2000-01 the state produced about 16. percent of Indias total cotton production, by 2007-08 it is said to have increased to around 35. 5 per cent of the total cotton output. According to estimates, the area under Bt cotton in India is about 76 lakh ha , which is about 80 percent of the total area under cotton in the country. As of 2008, the area under Bt cotton is the highest in Maharastra followed by Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh. Gujarat however, has the advantage of having maximum no. of seed companies which also produce Bt, hybrid seeds locally. Other important crops & crop diversification Gujarat farmers are known for their preference for high value commercial crops.This is evident from the recent efforts at crop diversification. One of the key reasons for this crop change has been availability of water. Fruits, which formed around 1 lakh ha in 1991-92, almost tripled and formed about 3. 39 lakh ha in 2008-09. 160 150 140 144. 74 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 Area (lakh Ha), Production (Lakh Tonne) of Horticulture crops 138. 03 (includes Fruits, vegetables, spices, flowers) Area Production 121. 04 115. 46 93. 48 85. 44 67. 16 60. 98 50 40 30 20 10 0 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 6. 91 7. 4 9. 47 9. 69 11. 03 11. 24 12. 46 13. 12 9 The fruit production increased from 18 lakh mt to 60 lakh mt in the same period, the major crops mango, banana and sapota. Similarly vegetables, which formed about 98,000 ha in 1991-92 it, quadrupled to 3. 95 lakh ha in 2008-09. Similar trend has been noticed for spices also. Availability of water for irrigation, better generation services and incentivisation through effective subsidies have all played a clear role for fuelling growth and crop diversification like Bt Cotton initially, followed by horticulture crops.The State government has made it authorization to use tissue cultured plantlets, drip irrigation with fertigation, and mulching as mandatory ingredients for availing allowance under its state Horticulture Mission programmes. The focus of the horticulture expansion has been chiefly in the gray districts of the state, where many cooperatives in the region have tie up with producers for collection, marketing of the p roduce. Though one has seen the entry of corporates for procurement and contract farming etc, but such farming and retail marketing is yet to make a significant dent.The shift to Bt cotton is not limited to the Saurashtra region and is also visible in other parts of the state. However, the changes in oil seed crops from groundnut to other crops like castor is mainly noticed in northern Gujarat. Seeds Seed is the basal stimulant drug in agriculture and has been critical in harnessing the full potential. Non-replacement of seeds due to non-availability or inaccessibility results in farmers sowing homegrown seeds. Thus it is important to achieve the doorsill level of Seed Replacement Rate (SRR). Govt. f Gujarat has set a target SRR of 25%, 35% and 100% in respect of self-pollinated (except ground nut), cross-pollinated and hybrid crops respectively. This aspect has been eloquently cover during the Krishi Mahotsavs being organized by the state political relation. Also minikits conta ining small quantities of seeds, free of cost, are being distributed as a part of National Food Security Mission (NFSM) during the Krishi mahotsavs. It may be added that the SRR reported in the state is much favorable than the national level figures.However, the seed requirements of the farmers are met out through both the Public sector (Gujarat State Seed Corporation- GSSCL) and the private sector seed companies. The GSSCL has steadily increased its coverage and enlisted the support of 8000 seed growers and seed production is undertaken in 14,500 ha of land. The seeds are marketed under the brand name Gurbani. The GSSCL is estimated to meet 35 percent of the seed requirement for wheat , paddy , groundnut and pulse. However, the Private seed companies have brought in new technology for several crops, ranging from bajra to castor, but above all in Bt cotton.More than 20 Bt cotton varieties are now produced by 30 odd seed companies. This is despite the fact that the first cotton hybri d in the world H4 was introduced in 1970 by the government Cotton Research Station situated at Surat. This hybrid cotton by virtue of its high yield potential and adaptability became popular among the farmers initially in Gujarat. There are large number of Hybrids in cotton and Bt Hybrids, which is being marketed by the seed companies in the state. 10 Fertilizer State government through the issue of Soil health cards in the Krishi Mahotsavs has addressed the daunting task of ensuring balanced use of fertilizers.The political science of Gujarat has issued more than 17 lakh cards in the last 4 years, and has been able to marginally address the issue of balanced use of fertilizers. The records suggest that the trend in fertilizer purpose (NPK ratio) which was 7. 84 3. 08 1. 00 has now marginally changed to 5. 872. 551. 00 in 2008-09. With the presence of number of fertilizer companies, the per ha consumption of fertilizers in the state has been consistently higher than the national a verage. computer address services The State Agricultural Department along with four Agricultural Universities (Banaskantha, Anand, Navsari and Dantewada) and Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVKs) are actively involved in extension services which interalia includes organizing the unique krishi mahotsavs, which is described in the later part of this report. Credit Credit and its timely availability to the farming community is an essential ingredient for growth. Credit disbursements for agricultural purposes have shown sharp growth rates in tune with the policy prescriptions both at the national and the state level.The CAGR for agricultural realisation for the national and state level figures have been very similar. The agriculture credit disbursed in Gujarat state formed about 5. 3 percent of the all India figures for the year 2000-01 and also in 2009-10 but in the interim the percent share marginally slipped to sub 5 percent ranging between 4. 4 to 4. 8 percent during the 2005-2009 period. A gri Credit (Rs Cr) 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 125309 229400 180485 All India Gujarat 254658 301908 366,900 hundred thousand 50000 0 52827 2824 62045 3446 69560 3931 86891 4517 6091 7936 10027 12129 13567 19533 001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Thus, the relationship of agri credit on agri GDP growth in the instant case cannot be clearly established as similar credit expansion in other states have not translated to high GDP growth rates elsewhere. But, some of the recent 11 interventions of the GoI viz revamping the cooperative credit institutions in the state, ADWDR-2008, interest subventions could have positively impacted off take of agri credit and facilitated cheaper sources funds for the agrarian community, curiously for marginal groups like small / marginal farmers.But, conversely it provokes one to question whether credit-led solutions are needed for all agrarian issues, especially after the efforts in the past to double credit flow. There are al so other moot points to consider especially when monocropped areas viz is increased indebtedness a solution especially in a drought year, when water the key gossip for farming is rather scarce? Should not these issues be addressed first, rather than facilitating a credit guzzle, which are often said to palliative solutionsCrop damages Crop insurance services are offered to the farmers for better production of crops, introduction of modern technologies and above all to mitigate the likely risk that the farmers could face. The coverage of farmers under the crop insurance and area covered under insurance have both shown a partial decline over the years, while the sum assured have shown a variation with an upward trend in the last year. 120. 0 108. 4 100. 0 88. 4 80. 0 60. 0 40. 0 20. 0 0. 0 1 2 3 Farmers (lak) 4 5 Area(L Ha). 6 7 Premium cr 8 9 24. 8 12. 8 23. 2 12. 0 22. 2 10. 4 22. 2 10. 7 25. 5 8. 9 19. 0 8. 8 17. 7 8. 4 18. 5 8. 3 20. 9. 5 74. 2 99. 4 85. 3 82. 9 82. 1 84. 0 105 . 8 Crop Insurance Coverage (2001-09) The decline in crop insurance coverage could be partially because of the farmers disinclination to cover cotton crop, carrying higher premiums or increased water availability, which could have dissuaded farmers from opting for risk mitigation tools. However, no specialised conclusions can be drawn on the relationship of crop insurance coverage and agri GDP growth rates in the state. 12 Livestock and dairy Milk is the largest product forming about 89 percent of the total value of livestock and total output of agriculture and allied activities.The dairy industry received a boost after the operation flood programme launched by the NDDB few decades back. Milk production in the state grew at an annual compound growth rate of over 5 percent compared to the national average of 3. 9 percent during the current decade. However, the share of livestock and animal husbandry in the agri GSDP of the state has been fluctuating between 22- 28 range in the last decade with a marginal dip in the last few years. In value terms it has increased from Rs 5725 cr ( 1999-00) to Rs 14733 crore in 2007-087.S ha r e o f a gr i a nd A H i n A gr i s c ont r i but i on t o GS D P 10 0 % 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 25% 10 % 0% 19 9 9 2 0 0 0 2000- 2001 2 0 0 1- 2 0 0 2 2002- 2003 2003- 2004 2004- 2005 2005- 2006 2006- 2007 2007- 2008 27% 27% 28% 22% 26% 22% 23% 23% %ge A H t o t ot a l GS D P %ge A gr i t o t ot a l GS D P There are a number of recent initiatives that have been taken by the government to give a boost to the sector, anyways increasing the budgetary allocation for animal husbandry and dairy development from Rs 20. 5 crore in 2004-05 to 95. 6 crore in 2008-09 , (which is a 4. times jump in the allocation), there has been a focus in provision of extension services. Though extension services have normally not received much attention for the sector, the krishi Mahotsav of the state give due importance to this aspect during the one mo nth mass contact programme. Kits and medicines are also distributed during these krishi mahotsavs. There are two other noticeable initiatives which the state government has recently taken viz bustling veterinary vans it has converted 120 of its 1250 veterinary hospitals to mobile vet vans, which visit villages during specialized time schedules.The veterinary hospitals established in the outskirts of the city area many years back have become unsuitable and inconvenient for farmers to visit and hence the new initiative. The response from the farmers is understood to be very satisfying. 7 presidency of Gujarat, Directorate of animal husbandry, 26 th survey report. 13 Secondly inorder to address the livestock farmers need of post monsoon seasons, when the disease incidence is high, the department has initiated the process of conducting health camps during the sept oct periods.About 3000 such health camps have been planned during the year. Some of the of the recent initiatives like ca ttle breeding have seen a spurt in Cross Bred cows and buffalo population in the state these actions are expected to yield substantial gains in the ensuing years. Further, the diary cooperatives, which were active in the south, mid and northern Guajrat are now fetching, shape in Saurashtra and Kutch regions. These initiatives are expected to substantially contribute to agri GDP growth in the state in future.Fisheries With a vast coastline spanning over 1,600 kms, fisheries forms an important sub component of the agriculture sector of the state. There are around 117 fish landing sites in the state and part of the production is also exported. The total production (marine fish), which was 5. 84 lakh tones, in 2004-05 has increased to 6. 83 lakh tones in 2008-09 ie put down a 17 % growth rate in 4 years. Thus, the annual growth rates recorded are lower than the sector as a whole. Much of the existing potential in the state for marine and inland fisheries is yet to be tapped.Other supp ort services which could have enabled agriculture growth scrimpy rainfall and vast regional variations in precipitation is almost a permanent feature of Gujarat, though a few exceptions have been noticed in recent past. This has often led to lack of quality drinking water in around 8,000 out of total 30,000 habitations the issue is further compounded by the concern due to fluoride, salinity, nitrates etc. This is particularly critical because of 75 percent of drinking water and other domestic need was earlier dependent on ground water.The recent state government initiative of implementing Sardar Sarovar Canal based drinking water supply project based on Narmada has served as a boon for the people of Gujarat . As per the latest available information 8215 villages and 135 towns of North Gujarat, Saurashtra and Kutch districts are being covered under the project. Under this project, water is being transported through bulk water trans billing lines and distribution network to the doors teps of villages and towns. Part of this drinking water supply project is being implemented through WASMO, which is being funded by NABARD under RIDF.The impact of the programme has been good and quality water availability has led to economic and social em causement of marginalized people/ fragment of society, especially women. Rural connectivity is another critical area, which has also directly influenced steep growth rates in the agriculture. In Gujarat, the rural road connectivity is 14 declared to be very good with about 98. 5 percent of the 18,000 odd villages having good road connectivity. Gujarat has been one of the first states to amend its APMC Act and also explicate the contract farming guidelines.The amendment was expected to create conditions conducive for the spread of contract farming. The government also encouraged large corporates to establish retail chains and source their requirements directly from farmers, but there has been no deluge of any kind, the state gove rnment also announced to provide subsidy for setting up low cost green houses etc The farmers in the state have also effectively used some of the GoI schemes available, for building and strengthening the agri infrastructure in the state.One stand out example has been rural godowns. Since the inception of the scheme a few years back, about 5400 godowns have been constructed in the state with a capacity of 16. 84 lakh tones. The scheme is administered through NABARD /NCDC and most of these structures are of smaller capacities and in rural hinterlands. Based on this analysis and assessment of facts and figures, four key drivers, which facilitated the massive push for agriculture growth in the state, have been shortlisted in the following pages.An attempt has also been made to catalog & assess the actions & processes that served the cause. These have been crystallized based on the documents available to the author (though not explicitly mentioned) and also based on the interfaces that t he author had with the stakeholders of the programme in the state. 15 Key driver 1 Water availability Key driver 2 Power availability Key driver 3 lengthening/ access to info Key driver 4 Crop diversification Driver 1 Water harvesting followed by water conservation- starting where it needs to start Water supply is the key to crop production and agriculture. The positive impact of irrigation on agricultural intensification and increased crop yield has been very well documented by various studies. Several irrigation impact related case studies in India have illustrated that irrigation management has a profound role to play in the poverty alleviation process as well8. The marginal returns of irrigation versus other factor inputs such as, farm technology and other rural infrastructure development are still a controversial issue in rural development literature.At first glance, the agricultural marvel in Gujarat seems to 960 804 have been supported by 647 factors such as good monsoon fo r most of the present decade, especially 2001- 2002- 2003- 2004- 2005- 2006- 2007- 2008after the drought in 2001-02. 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 YEAR The drought situation in early part of the decade had ushered in community led initiatives to save water, especially in Kutch, Saurashtra and the northern Gujarat areas of the state.Although many focus on the Sardar Sarovar Project, its canal network etc as the key to domestic and irrigation success in the state , its is awfully incomplete, and currently irrigates only 3 lakh ha. With almost 81 percent of the irrigation source coming in from ground water sources, it became a critical area of management. However, with groundwater extraction more than the estimated recharge, it was evident with substantial lowering of water tables levels in Saurashtra, Kutch and Northern Gujarat areas.In the mid90s, large parts of Saurashtra used to get water through train tankers from waterabundant areas of primaeval and south Gujarat. The coastal Saurasht ra & kutch had also witnessed another issue with consequential effect of excessive ground water extraction, which had resulted in lateral sub-surface intrusion of sea water which has affected coastal areas accounting to salinity. 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1288 1291 2008-09 960 RAINFALL IN MM 1034 1178 947 Thus, the scarcity of water was so profound and felt, that had triggered peoples movement for water conservation.One such was the check dam revolution in 1999 by Mansukh Suvagiya, a Rajkot-based social worker in Jhamka village of Junagadh where the villagers collected money and constructed 52 check dams in a span of two months on small rivulets in and around the village. Today, Jhamka is a symbol of water and agro self-sufficiency. In the same year, the Saurashtra 8 Chambers, Robert, 1998. Managing Canal Irrigation Practical Analysis from South Asia. Oxford & IBH Publishing Company, New Delhi, India. 16 Jaldhara Trust, built 213 check dams on rivulets in and around Khopala n ear Bhavnagar to turn the villages fortune.Thus, the drought of 2001-02, served as a turning point for large scale governing participation in innovative management of its groundwater resources which was taken on a massive measure. The success of the earlier people & NGO led initiatives served as a testimony to such efforts. The state adopted a combination of rainwater harvesting that traps water that would otherwise drain away followed by water conservation by use of micro irrigation that supplies each dominate of water more efficiently and directly to the plant.Thus, the water harvesting campaign Jal Sanchay Abhiyan was intended to inspire the farmers of the State to maximise agricultural production at minimum cost. The movement has been a roaring success and stories abound of conversion of barren lands into fertile farms, rising yields and falling costs of cultivation across the state. To get something from render earth you have to give something back. If you dont, it will st op giving you. It cant be a one-way cycle,.. Chief Minster, Modi told the farmers.Though the state Land Development Corporation implements most of the soil and water conservation activities, in the instant case the work was also entrusted to rural development, agriculture and irrigation departments also. The main objective was to harvest rain water through soil and moisture conservation activities of cultivable as well as uncultivable land. The structures/ works include check dams, nala plugs, boribunds, loose boulder structure and gully control measures were made to enable in situ harvest of water.Thus, the programme was initiated as a people participative programme and was launched after detailed discussion with farmers / beneficiaries in the year 2000. Most of these blocks where the campaign got well entrenched were in Saurashtra and Kutch where the farmers and the government together have started a unique check dam revolution. State Government has launched another specialised (S ujalam Sufalam Yojana) in the ten worst affected districts of Gujarat to solve water occupation caused due to excessive ground water extraction in the region. Most of the area of the 10 districts is now anked over exploited and included in the dark category. New tube wells are already banned in these areas since December 2003. (NABARD has also supported the scheme in the year 2004-05 which was effectively implemented in the allocated time period. ) The government had also made use of the imaging facilities to identify the areas where these water conservation devices were to be constructed. In the state as a whole, by December 2008, nearly 5,00,000 structures were created 1,13,738 check dams, 55,917 bori bandhs, 2,40,199 farm ponds, anyway 62,532 large and small check dams constructed all in a campaign mode.The changes are less evident in north Gujarat where the topography for building check dams is not conducive. The governments next focus was on water conservation through micro-i rrigation systems. In 2003, the Gujarat Government launched the Gujarat Green Revolution Company to propagate sprinkler and drip irrigation technology among farmers by giving them hefty incentives. First, it made the subsidy for micro irrigation available to all farmers, not just the curt ones. The initial investment to 17 install such micro irrigation was high and prohibitive and therefore poor farmers were hesitant to make that investment.But for the large farmers the subsidy made it a compelling bid and they actively participated. This in fact is said to have triggered the poor farmers to join in. Another unique aspect is the transparent and clear norms articulated by GGRC for subsidy scheme. It not only ensured clear product standards for the companies selling micro-irrigation system but also ensured that the companies didnt sell pipes and move on. There was a clear condition that the companies should also provide extension services to the farmers for minimum period of time.To ensure compliance, it introduced a series of norms like how many agronomists must be employed for a given expanse of land, how many field visits the experts must make and even the price at which the systems could be sold. Besides, this allowing all registered companies (with GGRC) to provide microirrigation system to farmers, it had also widened the pickaxe for the farming community. What has been impact of these initiatives? It is stated that the availability of the water increased substantially in the water scare areas.The farmers it was understood could now ensure to life legal transfer irrigation to failing crops. An independent assessment by (Shah, et al, 2009) is summarized below 18 Analysis by the author, clearly explains the unprecedented dynamism shown by Saurastra and Kutch , and North Gujarat in agricultural performance. The availability of water has essentially triggered increased crop cultivation, visible by increased Gross Cropped Areas (GCA) in these areas. This h as also resulted in switch to better crop choices in these areas primarily for Bt cotton (described in greater detail in other part of this report).Thus, a succession of good monsoons, investment in groundwater recharge and other support measures like improved quality of military group, resulted a remarkable change in agricultural production in the previously water scarce areas. A similar observation has also been made by IIMA in its study. Thus, Gujarat has set the finest example of groundwater management through indigenous and modern methods and through peoples participation, 19 Key driver 1 Water availability Key driver 2 Power availability Key driver 3 Extension/ access to info Key driver 4 Crop diversificationDriver 2 Rural electrification with an innovative approach (Joytigram Yojana) Power supply is often said to be a tinderbox issue 100 % electrification does not translate to light in every house and if there is electrical connection in the house it does not translate int o 24*7electricity9. Like elsewhere in India, unreliable farm supply supply has been anathema for farmers and the rural society. In Gujarat, uncontrolled farm power subsidies led to unsustainable increase in groundwater withdrawals and left the Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB) nearly bankrupt.Because farmers were getting subsidised power, they had little incentive to save on its use or keep pumps in good order to lower power consumption. As a result, much power was wasted. Also, power theft was widely prevalent. Further, farmers faced the problem of low-voltage power that helped nobody. In 2003, the Government of Gujarat introduced the Joytigram Yojana to improve rural power supply, through an innovative approach and thus streamlined the supply of electricity to water pumps.Traditionally the transmission system from power plant to ultimate users is through a single unit, however, under the new scheme the state government split the power supply chain viz by constructing a new parallel transmission system, by which it could intelligently allocate power supply to farmers. consequently, for the first time farmers in Gujarat received 8 hours of electricity of guaranteed voltage and pre-fixed timings, whereas previously they received 13-14 hours of irregular and unreliable supply.This ensured that farmers could use the pumps only for a limited time and had to make the most of it. As irrigation in Gujarat state is largely by ground water sources, the earlier approach of erratic and intermittent power, warranted over use of pumpsets by farmers, resulting in lifting water much more than the crop requirements and consequent wastage of water. With more assured and regulated power supply, the farmers found they could not make unauthorized use of power and initially disliked the effective rationing system.But on the flip side they enjoyed largely uninterrupted power supply at full voltage along a strictly adhered schedule10. Thus, the Joytigram Yojana, is said to have pion eered a real-time co-management of electricity and groundwater for agriculture. . Farmers were also happy that they were spared of the very high repair and maintenance cost that poor and erratic power supply imposed on them. Subsequently most farmers welcomed Joytigram for limiting competitive pumping of water and addressing the common property externality inherent in groundwater irrigation2.Ground water and power rationing through the Joytigram scheme not only increased efficiency of water and power utilization for 9 Devika, D (2010), Government of Gujarat Joytigram yojana Verma, S & Shah, T (2008), Co-management of electricity and ground water Economic and Political Weekly Vol 43 Issue 7 pp 59-66 10 20 agriculture, but it also frees up these resources for the rural nonfarm economy to grow. However, the new parallel feeder lines all came at a cost of Rs 1290 crore, to the exchequer.However, its quick implementation in just 1000 days enabled installation of 56,307 kms of high tensi on wires and 18,724 transformers to each of the 18,000 villages in the state. Conventional Way Single feeder Joytigram Yojana Separate feeders Agriculture and Domestic Agriculture 3 Phase, 8 hours Domestic single phase 24 Hours Impact Majority power drawn for agriculture Crippling shortage in the domestic sector Quality of the power poor, cases of damages to farmers pump sets etc Impact Farmers get continuous and good quality power at pre-announced schedules Domestic gets 24 hours uninterrupted power supply Infact special feeders were also effectively crafted (Specially Designed Transformers) to supply power to farmers residing in scattered farm houses. The average expenditure per village is a mere Rs. 6. 72 Lacs. A study undertaken by IRMA indicates many 56,307 kms positive features and 22,146 kms impact of the scheme, 18,724 nos which interalia includes 17,00,000 1,888 increase in employment, Rs 1290 crore decrease in migration by Rs 1115 crore 33 %, reduction in school 1000 abse nteeism and average duration of study by school students increasing by 80-90 %.The study also indicates the positive impact of power availability on rural industries, which has enabled 53 % of the families in rural areas to work during night times, increased momentum in industrial activities such as diamond polishing, agro bear upon etc. The project is also indicated to have decreased the time taken by women on household chores by 26 % and also enhanced their leisure, recreation and education substantially.Work executed under the Yojana (Source GOG) New high tension lines New low tension lines New transformers Poles erected Joytigram feeders Project cost Govt grant No. of days Joytigram 21 Another derived benefit from this innovative approach has been the reduction in distribution losses by 3. 74% and T/C failure by 1. 17% during the year 2005-2006 compared to year 2004-0511. The Electricity Board has also benefited by increased revenues. Once considered as bankrupt, it has seen a quantum jump in revenues from Rs 850 crore in 2004-05 to Rs 1231 crore in 2007-08 to Rs 1437 crore in 2008-09.All this is said to be achieved without a single increase in electricity tariff for the past 7 years. Thus, Gujarats agricultural boom is also driven by a much-improved rural power supply, which is mainly on account of the Jyotigram scheme. Besides making power available at stipulated times for the farming community, metering electricity use for irrigation purposes and charging farmers at near commercial rates based on power consumption is ultimately the ideal solution to these traditional vows.The standoff between electricitygroundwater is well established, a good and assured power supply and pre-defined time periods for the agrarian communities in water scare areas is critical to ensure balanced and sustainable extraction of groundwater resources. However, doing this will remain a politically sensitive issue, until such beneficial public systems find a feasible way of m eeting this challenge and even restoring the health of power companies in these populous agrarian states. 11 http//guj-epd. gov. in/epd_jyotiyojna. htm 22 Key drivers 1 Water availabilityKey drivers 2 Power availability Key drivers 3 Extension/ access to info Key drivers 4 Crop diversification Driver 3 Provision of Extension services taking lab to the land Krishi Mahotsav , an innovative agri-extension service Gujarat has stepped up its farm extension services significantly in the last few years, taking knowledge from research campuses and labs to the farms. The event facilitates seamless flow of knowledge to the agrarian communities in the rural hinterlands who normally have limited access to such information. Started in 2005 , the Krishi Mahotsavs have grown in scope.As many as 18,600 villages host the event starting on the Akshaya Tritiya day (an auspicious day in the Hindu schedule falling in May-June). So what is so unique about this Krishi Mahotsav of Gujarat? Krishi Mahotsa v is an intensive convergence and mass contact programme which is launched off by the political leadership, led by local elected leaders and run by the state government functionaries. Its an all inclusive programme, with the CM taking the lead and all elected members also visiting their concerned constituencies during this period.The Krishi Mahotsav was initially dubbed by the critics as a publicity stunt and wastage of government money. But, it has proved to the contrary, with a multi-disciplinary team of about one lakh government employees of 18 state departments / universities and students join hands. All related departments from agriculture, horticulture, AH, health, revenue officials, forestry, education, rural development etc join hands in the mission to reach every village in the state. Thus, its not left to the exclusive domain of the agriculture department, though it co-ordinates the entire event.Its in fact a month-long knowledge sharing rendezvous with the farming communi ty during the peak summer months ie before the onset of monsoons / cropping seasons. Thus the timing of the programme is critical and the sends out a clear message of intent and concern. The sequence of events and the processes have been explained in the Annexure enclosed. As a part of the krishi Mahaotsav demonstrations of technology, tools are also equipments, undertaken at the village level. A Krishi Rath complete with audiovisual equipment, posters, models and accompanied by scientists and administrators visits every village of the state.Last year about 239 tractor-mounted Krishi raths traveled through the designated paths covering all the 226 Krishi rath in a village development blocks and 18,000 odd villages. The time, route and duration of each of these Raths are predetermined and informed to the villagers. A maximum of three villages are 23 covered in a day by the kirshi raths. The night halts are also effectively used to screen AV about various critical issues pertaining to agriculture. Thus, the Krishi Raths, which travels through thousands of villages, usher in a festive mood in the villages.The krishi rath has been a cost effective method of carrying a tractor mounted panel cum sight material ( worth Rs 50,000) on rented tractors. The entire hire charges costs the government about Rs 2. 5 lakh per krishi rath for the one month sojourn. Besides the Krishi raths, large exhibitions are organized in all the agricultural university campuses and district towns which are widely attended by thousands of farmers. The CM besides flagging off the programme at one of the agriUniversities also visits a few villages and closely monitors the programme.Its understood that some of the raths are fitted with Video Conferencing facilities, and there are often surprise fundamental interaction by the CM with the villagers and also the staff involved in the Mahaotsav in the village. A team of 5 members are normally selected to each village which could include Univers ity staff, government officers, who are expected to spend time with farmers, listening to their problems and developing solutions. Year Krishi Mahotsav 2008 illustrative list of achievements, after year the Krishi reported by the State Government (Source GOG)Mahotsav has been 1 Agriculture Kit Distribution 157926 considerably improving 2 Horticulture Kit Distribution 133299 through productivity knowledge sharing and 3 Animal Husbandry Kit Distribution 369796 orientation of farmers 4 Soil Health Card Distribution 84933 towards value added 5 New soil sample 248440 modern agriculture, 6 Kisan credit card 65839 marketing methods, organic farming and new 7 Animal Vaccination 5133141 technology. 8 9 Khet Talavadi Drip Irrigation 11245 26058 the Mahotsav During scientists besides giving 10 Tree Sapling 13148454 lectures about crop 11 Guidance by Agri.Scientist in Kisan 1396795 production practices, crop Shibir protection measures, also 12 person-to-person Guidance No. of Farmers 428937 undertake soil health tests 13 Guidance for marketing system by 158510 and give soil-health cards APMC to the farmers detailing the soil composition, and the exceed possible crops for the soil type. They also carry out vaccination of the cattle, distribute kits on agriculture, animal husbandry, and horticulture to 5- 10 poorest farmers in the village. Gujarat officials recount several effects of the reinvented extension model.For instance, they argue that in using chemical fertilisers, Gujarat farmers have moved wholesale from a 137. 51 nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium composition to a 5. 831, thereby reducing cost, optimising production and improving net income. 24 Thus, the Gujarat evolved annual month-long Krishi Mahotsav campaign is a unique extension model that brings agricultural scientists, extension staff, agroindustries, input suppliers, cooperatives, banks, local and state-level political leaders together on a platform to exchange knowledge and information on the latest tec hnologies and market opportunities12.The normal disjuncture which exists between many of the stakeholders seem to reduce substantially with this unique effort at convergence. This also sends out a serious message about the purpose and intent to help and find solutions. Another key aspect has been the meticulous planning for the event and the clear role and responsibility assigned to each of the government staff concerned during the Krishi Mahotsav (details of the villages assigned, including the mobile numbers of the staff is uploaded on the website).The entire operations and activities of the krihi mahotsav is closely monitored by the senior officials and also the political leadership of the state. sequence farmers suggest that the quality of work in these fairs leaves room for improvement, they agree that the researchers need to gain more practical experience, however, there is no denying the fact that the programme has enabled in spreading awareness about things such as soil qua lity, fertilizer use etc.The field interactions also suggest that the staff of the department and university have also greatly benefited from the entire event with greater field orientation in the work they do. Thus, it has been a two way learning process. 12 Shah, T et al (2009), the Secret of Gujarats agrarian miracle after 2000 Economic & Political Weekly ,26 December, vol xliv no 52, page 45-52 25 Key driver 1 Water availability Key driver 2 Power availability Key driver 3 Extension/ access to info Key driver 4 Crop diversificationDriver 4 Crop diversification Switching crops for better incomes Though, studies suggest that number of factors govern the nature and speed of crop diversification by farmers, but availability of resource endowments like water and irrigation facility and technological support could serve as key determinants for the change. From a farmers perspective greater margins and income serve as compelling reasons for the crop switch. However, availability of i ncentives like subsidies does give a fillip to the crop diversification process.The Gujarat story is profoundly familiar to the above observations as the concerted efforts to recharge water table and its increased availability coupled with regulated electricity for agricultural use triggered two clear movements viz increased production of crops with greater stability in production patterns and as also crop switch by farmers. Even before this, the striking feature of the Gujarats agriculture has been its pronounced slant towards cash crops which formed more than 50 % of the GCA, whereas the normal crop coverage has a predominance of food grains.However, availability of irrigation water did give an impetus to crop diversification as also increased Rabi coverage in Saurashtra, kutch and north Gujarat. The reports suggest about 6-8 lakh ha of additional area being brought under Rabi in the recent past. One of the clear winners in the crop switch story has been Bt cotton. The expansion i n Bt cotton is matched by expansion in irrigated cotton this suggests that Bt cotton benefits hugely from four to five supplemental irrigations provided at critical points of crop growth.Gujarat increased its cotton yield over six fold from 175 kg per hectare in 2001-02 to 798 kg per hectare in 2008-09, higher that the world average yield of 787 kg per hectare in 2007-08 (Damor 2008)13 because of the feature effect of Bt cotton and irrigation in Saurashtra, Kutch and North Gujarat. The rise of Bt cotton supported by a high MSP for cotton offered a big chance for farmers. The farmers in these regions exploited this opportunity brilliantly.While the public sector generally plays a role in production and distribution of high yielding variety (HYV) seeds like wheat, the private seed sector took a lead role in developing and promoting the use of Bt Cotton seeds. Gujarat alone, has more than 30 odd private seed companies which have registered over 120 varieties of Bt Cotton. The state a lready has a history of having developed the first cotton hybrid of the country (H4). Thus, the cotton growth story could be partly due to the numerous hybrids being developed by local farmers and the seed production of Bt cotton seeds in farmers palm in Gujarat.The state agriculture university reports that the state has over 200 varieties of Cotton, which could be Bt, hybrid, or other common desi varieties. Not only has the yield more than forked in just five to six years, at present more than 50% of the total cotton area in Gujarat has come under Bt cotton. Another positive aspect for the cotton growers has been its comfortable forward linkages and vertical integration with the cotton related industries. The Industry is also said to be witnessing a revitalization of interest among textile players because 13Damor, Kalpesh (2008) Gujarat Cotton Yield May Cross World Average, Business Standard, 8 October 26 of easy access to raw material at reduced freight. Two more major textile projects envisaging an investment of more than Rs. 10. 5 billion are slotted to come up at Jhagadia in central Gujarat. According to Cotton Advisory Board (CAB) estimates, Indias cotton production in 2007-08 has jumped by 12. 5 % at 31. 5 million bales (1 bale = 170 kg) as compared to 28 million bales in previous year. Gujarat state has contributed 35% of this production. This proves very high productivity of cotton in Gujarat.The State Governments Agro-vision 2010 (a model blue print for all round development of agriculture) lays emphasis on cultivation of high value, low volume crops. Thus, besides, cotton a few other crops like wheat, castor and horticulture are also a part of the diversification story, which again is triggered by availability of suitable resource endowments for farmers. Accordingly the area under some of the low value crops like bajra and jowar has sharply declined over the years. The high growth had also come from fruits and vegetables (dominated by banana, man go, potato and onions) that has grown at almost 12. % during 2000/01 to 2007/08. Area under horticulture is constantly increasing in the state, roughly by 30,000 ha/year partly driven by the NHM initiatives. The area & production of horticulture crop was 5. 98 lakh Ha (5 % of total cropped area) & 59. 03 lakh tons in 1998-1999 which increases up to 9. 65 lakh ha. (9. 65 % of total cropped area) & 90. 95 lakh ton respectively in 2004-05. It is targeted to cover 19. 00 lakh ha. of land under horticulture by year 2010 in the state. Another important crop has been wheat