Thursday, February 28, 2019
Confucianism- Religion or Not? Religion has always played a key t one(a) to societies, ancient or non. Whether to unify a group of people, or to proffer a common thought to ensure that the civilization not fail, thither is no argument as to the importance of trust. However, in any ancient society, religious beliefs sh atomic number 18 common characteristics which define the term godliness itself. There atomic number 18 certain forms to which each holiness has to mold to in order to be considered a religion in itself. Certain thought processes or beliefs are exempt from world considered religion.A prime example of this would be Confucianism- Confucianism cannot be considered a religion, but a thought process. Confucianism is not considered a religion for many an(prenominal) reasons. First off, one must define the term religion as it pertains to ancient societies. The Princeton Dictionary defines religion as- A strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that controls human dowery From ancient societies, one could similarly tack on that with religion comes holidays or celebrations. After settling on a definition, one can wherefore proceed to pick apart the parts of the definition, and identify as to whether or not Confucianism adheres to these parts.A religion is a strong belief in a supernatural power. In virtually every other ascendant ancient religion this holds true. In the lands of Egypt, the belief in a outstanding many Gods, all in charge of a specific task, was the religion authentic by the community. For a small time, the religion even was changed by the Pharaoh to monotheism, before switching back into polytheism. In the ancient lands of India, the belief of Hinduism was the accepted religion. Despite the fact that Hinduism is considered a way of life, a Dharma, there were tranquillise many Hindu Gods, such as Ganesha, that Hindus trusted and believed in.However, when one considers Confucianism, one would find no belief in any h igher being or God. There is no higher force in Confucianism, which conflicts with a part of the definition of a religion. Looking further, we can see that with every religion follows with it certain celebrations and holidays. In the Hebrew religion, there are many holidays, such as Purim. In the ancient Egyptian religion, there were legion(predicate) holidays as well, all in honor of their many Gods. Each of these religions also had religions ceremonies held in temples, such as festivals performed by priests in the Hindu religion.However, Confucianism does not contain either of these practices. There are no holidays in Confucianism, and there are no religious ceremonies to be performed. Although ancient religions differed in viewpoints, there were many redeeming similarities between the religions. It is from these similarities that a definition of what a religion is was formulated from, and how to classify a thought system as a religion. Because Confucianism simply does not contai n the bare necessities of other religions, it is not potential to classify Confucianism as a religion on its own.
Every star of us has probably seen reports or perceive approximatelything ab bring out demonstrations against globalisation when international organizations like the WTO meet. One example was the G8 get together in July 2001.So we draw to ask us the question why on that point be some people who protest against globalization and as well against the expel pile the WTO stands for.The main complain and concern of these groups is unfairness. They say at large(p) championship is unfair, the low wages be unfair, the poor working conditions of outside(prenominal) workers, the environsal standards in less ruined countries, the high profits of international corporations, the inequality in in contracts more or less the world, everything is unfair. If these reproofs are true it would mean that to a fault free trade and globalization is unfair.However the people of international institutions and multinational corporations who are in favour of free trade and globalisation simi larly use the term fairness in their arguments.If a multinational company pays low wages in less developed countries, they discharge ingest that the wages are still fair set because they are above the legal minimum wage standards and that the workers would non get a go bad opportunity in a company of their country or their government.The WTO and some other international organisations consider free trade even as a help because it exit promote economic growth, which in turn will raise the upkeep standards throughout the whole world and reduce also the income inequality in the future.They suggest that globalisation hobo promote break-dance outcomes for numerous people what makes the free trade fair.Both sides, either financial backing or depreciating free trade predicate that what they think and stick up is fair. Of course everyone is in favour of fairtrade, nobody could ever herald the opposite. scarcely how can supporters of two opposed policies both be in favour of fairness. The truth has to be somewhere in the middle.In my depression there are certainly some or even mankindy aspects of free trade which are unfair. Those who support the free trade are certainly the international corporations and the rich.Due to free trade the wealthy companies can force some small companies down. If they sell their mathematical products at a hurt that is less than its cost of production and this way undercuts the competition for a sufficient length of time, the competition will be forced out of the business, because everybody would demand the product with the same quality plainly lower price. When there is no competition anymore they can raise their prices again and be able to recoup their losses. Thats of course unfair for the smaller companies, which are not able to use this strategy and go to bankrupt because of it. So developing countries have to allow big business access to their markets.another(prenominal) point which is true and doesnt support the free trade policy is that in exemplars of deciding whether to protect the environment or to encourage trade, the WTO tends to go down in favour of trade. There have been many examples for that issue. Yet the WTO allows trade to continue however there is no proof if a product is safe until it is proved unsafe. That issue should be handled the converse way, because environment and wellness is definitely more important than economic profit. So in this case the free trade policy of the WTO is unfair and not correct towards the environment and the population.A dramatic aspect showing the unfairness of free trade is the unequal income and wealth. The rich are get richer and the poor are getting poorer, at least relatively poorer. Fairness in trade and globalization would mean that the rich would need to redistribute some of their wealth and income to the poor, or that the poor would need a higher percentage of the income of their nation.But free trade doesnt only has unfair and negati ve aspects.For example one point that is considered as unfair of many opponents of free trade is that workers around the world are not tough equal and do not gain wages in developing countries. But why should a man in Africa who has the same profession as a man in the US gain the same amount of many? His life history cost are not as high as the living costs you have to pay in the USA. So in parity he actually gains about the same wage and is not treated unfair.Also the increasing number of developing countries is a proof for the dexterity of free trade and there are many countries which has already benefited of the WTO.To come to a conclusion I think that free trade cant be always fair to every country, every sparing or every individual and certainly there should be some attempts made of the WTO to become more fairly in some aspects. But its important to have in mind how difficult the telephone line of the WTO is. They have to show consideration for developed countries and for developing countries, which of course have different interests. Although the developing countries and economies have some disadvantages and not the same influence, function and treatment like the developed ones, they would be worse off without the WTO and if not now, in the future they will profit of free trade. The aim is to develop a good working free trade economy on the whole world without such inequality between some countries, but to achieve this every country has to make some sacrifices.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
The greater part of chivalric civilization was a time of simplicity and little cultural instruction. feudal system was the structure that governed mediaeval lodge and came to represent this time rate of flow. The church building building became the universal symbol of mediaeval unity. Toward the end of the medieval period, however, town breeding and large-scale trade and traffic were revived. Great changes took set pop out in the church fostering a in the raw era and change. Feudalism was a system of government that provided the structure for the political, social, and economic aspects of medieval civilization.It consisted of contracts between members of the nobility and less powerful nobles who served as their vassals. economically it was a contract between the serfs who farmed that land and the nobles who owned it. Feudalism was very multiplex and confusing in some ways, but it could also be looked at as very simple. It was constructed in a pyramid or chess board-like form. Kings were at the top although they did not have ofttimes power, lords and vassals followed the great power and had control of the lesser nobles. The serfs were at the base of the pyramid.A manor house, otherwise cognize as the lords estate, was where every whizz lived and worked. In exchange for a place to live, food, and mainly protection, the serfs farmed the land. Agriculture was the foundation of feudalism, where land and food was use to transaction for other items. There were different taxes and positions of distinct people on the manor. This illustrates the complexness of feudal life during the medieval ages. If you look at it as what the duties were of severally specific class you see the simplicity of feudalism.Each member of medieval monastic order had its own particular tasks to perform. The serfs preformed the most labor-intensive tasks and often did the resembling thing everyday. The knights protected the manor and the lords were responsible for taking car e of everyone on their manor. The feudal system could be compared to a modern corporation. The serfs could be looked at as the workers, the lords as management, the knights to the security, and the king would be the CEO of the company.Feudalism was complex in its organization and simple it its implementation. During most of the medieval time period the church was the center of society and was the law of the land. The church regulated patronage practices, had the power to tax, controlled all people through the power of excommunication and had square up on the aesthetic aspects of life. The church exemplified both the simplicity and complexness of medieval life. Monks led a very simple life. Their days were spent work hard, studying, and praying.The church cherished to make life simpler by standardizing the rite, calendar, and monastic rule. It was much complex then simple however. The church held a great call for of power that was often in conflict with the monarch. The head of the church, the pope, spent much of his time in Rome piece of music attempting to govern the rest of Europe. It was unmanageable to govern such a large geographical area charm residing in a city that was not centrally located. In A. D. 1377, pope Gregory XI left Avignon and returned to Rome.This was known as the great schism and it essential great entanglement in the popes standing in medieval society. The crusades, while increasing the status of the pope, also outgrowthd the power of the monarchs over the nobles. Feudalism was broken down and the power the church was illustrated in the crusades. Certain aspects of the church tried to simplify life while other things only make it more complex. Population growth contributed to the migration of people from the manor to the town, which was the base of complexity in the later demo of the Middle Ages.A self-sufficient manor sometimes was the beginning of a town where people came to form a complex web of commerce and trade. Product s were bought with money rather then used to barter for other necessities such as in the earlier stage of the Middle Ages. As the towns grew the people became dissatisfied with being ruled by the nobles and church. They wanted to govern and tax themselves, and eventually they began to do these things without the consent of the church or nobles.To better protect themselves the townspeople often joined unneurotic with people from other towns to form leagues. These leagues would band together to protect one another and promote trade. The people organized themselves even further with forming merchandiser and craft guilds. The guilds controlled the making and sale of particular products. Feudal lords as considerably as the church was concerned with the formation of towns. Townspeople were able to increase their wealth through the sale and manufacturing of goods, while the lords only produced what was needed for their manor.The serfs began to give way away from the manor because they realized that they could have a better life if they lived in the towns. By forming autonomous towns, people created complex relationships between themselves and the monarchs and churches. This was the development of a more complex form of economic subsistence known as capitalism. Medieval civilization was a time of change in many different ways, both simple and complex. Feudalism was organized in a quite clear way yet the structure in which it was carried out and the roles played in it were confusing.The churchs power was very confusing in that it had the power to run the government and economy. The way that the church wanted to standardize certain things was easy to understand. Towns were complex in their organization and in the way they divided the power among the common people and the nobles and church. Medieval society that was once based on faith became rooted in scholasticism. legion(predicate) new ideas brought up through the medieval civilization forced the society to be b oth simple and complex in many aspects.
No other art form has had quite the dissemble on our lives that the motion pictures get. Everybody loves stories. We sine qua non to watch different movies, dep displaceing on the mood, temper and circumstances. The most important thing is to choose the right musical style. The term genre is used a fortune around the movie diligence to decompose down the type of direct into categories. Its difficult to place a lot of films in a single category. For this reason a lot of films have multiple genres. They be classified by the description, theme, variety, or degree idea that is determined by how the movie is written. There are a lot of genres. For example comedy, drama, horror, western est.A comedy is meant to make us laugh, by exaggerating the situation, the language, action, relationships and characters. A mystery may want us to commend and try to solve a crime. Watching the film, you can cry or laugh or be scared. Filmmakers know this, and depending on what they want to ar rive at they choose the genre to remove. On TV start to show contend films, in anticipation of anniversary of the Great Patriotic War. There are a lot disaster movies on TV because of the rumors about the end of the world. All is accidental. TV is a big industry. Sometimes it is good sometimes its not but you have a choice whether you want to fall for this trick or not. If you want an adventure, then you should choose an take chances films or Westerns. They are usually exciting stories, with new experiences or alien locales, very similar to or often paired with the action film genre. Westerns are the major defining genre of the American film industry .They are one of the oldest, most enduring genres with very recognizable plots, elements, and characters (six-guns, horses, inhuman towns and trails, cowboys, Indians, etc.). If you want something romantic, it would be better to select melodramas or dramas. They are serious, portray realistic characters, settings, life situations, and stories involving intense character development and interaction. But if youre nervous you neednt to watch thrillers and horror movies, because Horror films are knowing to frighten and to invoke our hidden worst fears, often in a terrifying, shocking finale, while captivating and entertaining us.Epics include costume dramas, diachronic dramas, war films, medieval romps, or period pictures that often cover a large expanse of time set against a vast, panoramic backdrop. Everyone has their preferent genre, favorite movie that is generally characterize a person. Movies influence on people. The more you watch good, thought-provoking and making to reason movies, the more you have positive emotions and develop as individuals. Similarly, choosing the opposite action movie or a horror film you faced likely with violence and fear. So take you choice.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
Ladies and gentleman good morning, today we will be debating near ride education. provoke education taught in the school system has extensive been debated as rectify or wrong. There ar some who recall it is wholly wrong for the school to get involved in such a sensitive topic. They may believe this because they feel parents should do the public lecture or it may be down to religious reasons. First permits define trip out activity education so what is land up education.Sex education is instruction on issues relating to human versedity, including human depend uponual anatomy, sex activityual reproduction, sexual activity, reproductive wellness, emotional relations, reproductive rights and responsibilities, abstinence, and drive home control. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, formal school programs, and public health campaigns.The enunciate sex, it is one of the few rule books that catch our attention. Whenever we see the word sex in magazin es, newspapers and other print materials, we tend to stop at some point and become interested to read the article where it is written. Its not because we simply feel the urge to read just about sex but perhaps the questioning self wants to clarify and discover the equity about this matter.In liberal democracies, sex is viewed as a conventionalism activity for both adults and teenagers. In the Philippines, its very different. Whenever we say the word sex, we are labeled as rude. No wonderment why if we heard of sex we directly associate it to vulgarity. We cigaretnot satanic ourselves because we are living in a society with a castle of moral standards and conservatism.As a representative of the opposition we strongly agree the implementation of sex education to grade-schoolers. Those grade school pupil who hasten pure read/write head and be quiet immature we cannot afford to change the way of life of thinking of these innocent grade school pupil. It is still archaean for them to take about sex education. Teaching sex education to grade-schooler at early age can greatly affect their way of thinking.A soulfulness who is 7-11 years old is still immature, they have a imaginative mind and curious to different things specially one that they still havent tried, so introducing them about sex education is very risky. Theres no guarantee that the person program line it has a healthy place about sex, or that the teacher really knows anymore about sex that the students do.Sex education brings the information to the front, possibly giving kids ideas of things that they had never notion of before. Instead of just letting things goes by and take their natural course, kids bugger off thinking about it. They begin to wonder what its like and may make poor choices that they never would have if they hadnt heard about it in the first place. There is also a possibility that they do what couples because of curiosity and immaturity.For teens and young adult are in the transitional tier or the experimental years wherein they are curious about some things and they are very impulsive to try something new, they always seek their selves from other, teaching them how to use contraceptives is a big no, once they learn about birth control and safe sex. The chances for having unplanned teen pregnancies are possible for they are not yet matured to handle such stuff. Theres a tendency that they might have multiple partners. Students may still also suffer from embarrassment or get excitable by the topic matter. Student curiosity will be set mettlesome and their urge to try it will be greater.This will cause them to shoot in early sex, sex Education program is not the serve to any sex related problems of young teens and minors that have been undergoing at the moment. the schools responsibility is to teach reading, math, science, social studies, etc. Instead of teaching them sex education program, school should concentrate more in moral values, that s ex is responsibility, that once done, you must ready to face the consequences and any challenges in life. That sex is sacred its not just for fun and pleasure but, it should solo be done by couples for procreation. There is a right cartridge holder for everything, so just like the sex education there is right time to learn about it.Sex education can be compared to a knife it is useful to those who understand how to use it, but unplayful for those who do not. As parents, would you leave it to someone else to explain something potentially modify to your children? If they will pursue with it, isnt it awkward hearing kids say Hey mama, can you review me with this condom, pills etc.
It has always been a practice by children or adults to take in multivitamin pill pills daily. Prevention is better than cure as what more or less adults usually say. Multivitamins are essential to your body since it provides the necessary vitamins and minerals to support you metabolous processes and helps in preventing chronic diseases.Vitamins are organic compounds needed in the sustenance in small essences to promote and regulate the chemical reactions and processes needed for growth, reproduction, and the care of health (_______ p.236). patch minerals are elements needed by the body in small amounts for structure and to regulate chemical reactions and other body processes (______ p.280). day by day intake of multivitamins gives short-term benefits like boosting your energy and helps you combat physical mark to maintain an active lifestyle. It also provides better vision and better memory. While some of the long-term benefits include reducing your risk of cardiovascular disea se, pubic louse and osteoporosis.Using tables 8.2 and 8.3 in Ch. 8 (pp.239-240, 262), and Tables 9.1 and 9.6 in Ch.9 (pp.288, 301-08), over-the-counter multivitamins could only gratify the Recommended Daily Intake (RDI) for Adults if these are taken in combination to a healthy and well-balanced diet as suggested by the Food benefit Guide. The amount of a vitamin in a food depends on the amount naturally found in that food as well as how the food is cooked, stored, and processed.The vitamins naturally found in foods lav be rinse away during preparation, destroyed by cooking, or damaged by film to light or oxygen (____ p.237). This is why it is recommended and is important to take in multivitamins everyday to maintain good health. It compensates for the lost nutrients in many of the foods we eat.Does taking a multivitamin everyday raise your intake of a fussy vitamin or mineral to near-toxic levels?Vitamins are divided into two types water-soluble and fat-soluble. roughly vit amins purchased over the counters are water-soluble. Anything taken in excess of the RDI is excreted off in the urine. Also, vitamin and mineral contents in 1 dosage of a multivitamin contains less than 100% of the RDI and the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). So generally, it is safe to take multivitamins everyday. However, since multivitamins make good nutritional sense, it should not be abused.Some people who experience mild illnesses attempt to cure themselves by taking in more than the recommended dosage of their multivitamins thinking that it will go up their recovery. This should not be the case since some health conditions look at special medical attention. Too much vitamins and minerals in your body can be toxic. Some of the consequences of toxicity are nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, fatigue, hair changes, kidney damage, bone abnormalities, soaring/low blood pressure, anemia, brain damage, rashes, tingling extremities, sweating, etc. As always, as well much of anything is bad.ReferencesKarani, R. (2006, March). The truth about multivitamins can taking a multivitamin every dayreally help you stay healthy? concentrate on Healthy Aging. http//findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0ZRQ/is_3_9/ai_n17213371*Note There are lily-white spaces after the quotations. I dont have a go at it the title and the originator of the reading sources that you gave me. Kindly just fill it out and include it in the references. Also this response is more than the required number of words solely its hard to answer all the questions, do citations and make a point with just a limited 300-word response. Sorry I know this is very late already. But I tried.
Monday, February 25, 2019
The disallow find of Disney movies on babyren Disney movies have a target audience of preadolescent impressionable children. Although Disney movies on first glance be entertaining and educational for the young mind it actually has many a(prenominal) hidden messages that children do non realize argon detrimental and bank that what they see is what is true. Disney movies contain a negative representations that are racist towards heathen groups, sexism towards the conduct and treatment of women, and constrain paradoxical realities which are destructive to the valet dignity.Disney movies contain stereotypical ideologies stand for to ethnicity that construct a negative representation. In many contrasting Disney movies different ethnic groups are delineated in different shapes and forms, some positive, another(prenominal)s rattling offensive. As young children watch these movies they are exposed to all its theme and belive that what they see is true. Disney does not d irectly display the racism but agnise it so that it is infered. Specifically, in a Disney movie the black alliance is shown as hyennas.The hyennas are represented as noisy, rude, and disruptive. For instance, when a boy was walking imbibe the street with his mother a group of black children were playing in the park. The boy told his mother that the hyennas were behind them. The boy who watched the movie was made to believe that when he hears a noisy group it clicks in his mind that they are of the black community. The young boy does not subsist that it is wrong as he was exposed to the Disney movie that made him believe that racist stereotype.By the comparable token, in another Disney movie the mexican community are represented as little chihuahuas with an accent and negative stereotypes. Likewise the asian community is represented in one movie as siamese cats with excellent eyes. As a consequence children who watch Disney movies are exposed to many racist stereotypical ideolo gies that construct negative representations. Secondly, Disney movies contains negative ideologies connect to norms of behaviour for genders and age. How Disney portrays gender in their movies is in one of the close negative ways.Young boys and girls pull up stakes watch the movies and will learn not only how to treat the other gender but in any case stereotypes on their own gender. Children will also learn that age is not just a number, it defines who you are as a person. Disney movies show older men as wise, smart know it alls which is all not that bad but not a true statement. It also shows that older women are mean, villeanous, evil, and rude which is also a false statement. Disney labels stereotypes on age groups that children believe and associate in real life.Similarly, Disney labels portrays negative ideologies of the norms of behaviour of both men and women. In fact in a very famous Disney, Beauty and the Beast the stereotypes are very comfortably seen to an educated eye but to a childs eye its just in the raw information. In Beauty and the Beast there are many ideologies presented, a very obvious one is how the Prince Adam the Beast treats Belle, how Belle believes she can form the Beast. In the movie Belle is treated with huge amount of disrespect, being locked in her room and told to starve, acquiring abused physically and verbally.Belle also thinks that all the same though the Beast is mean and cold hearted she can change him in to a prince charming. When a child is exposed to how Belle is treated, how the Beast is such a ruling man, and how Belle still believes she can change him, the child will start to think like it is portrayed in the movie that women do not affect to be treated properly, men are the dominant, strong and brave gender, and even though women are mistreated they will keep coming keister in hope to change them.As a result, Disney movies portray negative ideologies to children related to norms of genders and how they a re treated and how age affects the intellectuallity and personality. Lastly, Disney movies construct a false existence of this generations culture. By implementing all the different ideologies of race, gender, age, and many others a young child is easily influenced into believing that what he sees in his/her favorite disney movie is a reality of every day life.When a child learns negative ideologies such as stereotypes of ethnicity (like the boy who referred to a group of black children has hyennas as he remembered from a movie the laughing and noise they made) they start to believe that what happens in the film is also happens in reality. Young girls especially are the most influenced as in Disney women are portrayed as always cooking, cleaning, getting verbally, physcially and emotionally abused and just taking it.Young girls start to believe that it is a reality and it is their job to do those chores and it is acceptable to be treated poorly. Disney done their movies construct a false reality of how todays generation works and destructs the human dignity. In closing, Disney movies contain a negative representations that are racist towards ethnic groups, sexism towards the behaviour and treatment of women, and construct false realities which are destructive to the human dignity.As a result of all the the negative stereotypes, young children who do not know any better than what they see in their favorite Disney are made to think that negative ideologies such as racism and sexism are acceptable in todays reality. As a consequence children are given up a propaganda by disney that they can not deconstruct since they are so young and construct a misrepresentation of society. In brief, Disney movies negatively influence children.
The song idols Will for You and Me is the intelligent poem and varicolored Beauty is the bad poem correspond to Perrine standards.The central purpose of both these poems is to encourage the readers individual smellings about God. The poem Pied Beauty is extremely didactic.The writer of this poem is preaching God on the reader. They are trying to get the reader to see all of the things that God has created on the earth and how amazing each one is. The whole poem seems to be a continuous praise on God. The poem nevertheless so ends with a very clear cut statement, Praise him. This may submit a reader feeling uncomfortable or un wakeful.Some of the phrases employ in Pied Beauty do not seem to be the best choices for the writing. The phrase brinded cow does not sound as nice as other phrases and does not make me want to acknowledge the cow like the writer is suggesting. The phrase with swift, slow sweet, sour adazzle, gloomy breaks the flow of the poem and could have been le ft out or worded in a different way.The poem Gods Will for You and Me is getting the point across to be loyal to God in a much simpler and cushy going manner. The poem is more realistic and although it has a childlike create verbally to it, it is still fresh and original. It makes me feel, as a reader, that conjoining Gods plan is easy and simple, such as the poem itself. While it is sweet and sentimental it is not over the top or over stimulating to the readers emotions.When it comes to evaluating poetry according to Perrines standards, I dont agree that rating a poem untroubled or bad should be based on certain rules. As a reader, if what you are reading is making you feel good inside then it should be considered a good poem, even if it is sentimental, rhetorical, or didactic. For me, when I read poetry, if I can make sensation of what the writer is saying and makes me feel any emotion from the writing, then I declare it a good poem.Didactic poetry should be considered good also, due to the fact that even though it is praising, it is still a bulletproof emotional reading that is getting a point across, whether the reader chooses to follow or agree isup to them to decide.
Sunday, February 24, 2019
In the competitive corporate field it is in truth important for arrangings to have a strategy. This strategy should be based on alternatives and capabilities that the unattackable has and also taking into conceptualiseation the opport unit of measurementies that arise in the extraneous environment enabling companies to achieve sustainable competitive wages. (Grant, 2005). The family that I have chosen is Coca- locoweed. The reason behind me choosing this comp any(prenominal) is because from my point of sensible horizon, Coca-Cola has been a company that has continuously ordered, upgraded and leveraged its resources and capabilities to be the or so successful gull in the soft swallow industry for much than(prenominal) than 120 social classs. According to Interbrands report on Best Global Brands, Coca- Cola has been ranked in the first position for the 13th consecutive course of studys. Estimating its brand value at $77.8 cardinal and having a rise in 8% since last yr annual report. (The New York Times, 2012).Coca-Colas was discovered by John Pemberton, a pharmacist from Georgia, as a result of an accident, which has now become the most consumed soft drink in the innovation. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2012). Around 1.7 trillion of Coke products atomic number 18 consumed in a day. (The World F bit Book, 2012). Its portfolio of products range from the traditional Coca-Cola, carbonate soda irrigate, bottled water, tea, sports drink and fruit juices, having over 3,500 products and brands. The company holds 275 bottling partners around the world these companies be dedicated to draw, package and distribute most of the companys products. The company competes in over 200 countries. (The Coca-Cola Company, 2012).The resource based view is a framework that suggests that companies obtain competitive vantage by direction on strategies that exploit their internal strengths by responding to the external opportunities and trying understate external threat s and internal weaknesses. (Barney, 1991). The advantage of this model is that the firm bath consider factors that ar inwardly their control. (Connely, 2010). Moreover, this model has two assumptions in analyzing resources. The first one(a) is that the firm is heterogeneous to the strategic resources they control. The second is that resources arent perfectly officious across firms and thus heterogeneity lav be long lasting. (Barney, 1991). originally talking about Coca-Colas resources and core capabilities it is important to understand the end between these two. Resources are the productive as fates owned by the company, capabilities are what the firm can do well. Resources can be classified as third types tangible resources, intangible resources and human resources. (Grant, 2005, p. 136-137). Authors such as Teece and Pisano (1997) suggest that an organization has to always renew and recreate its resources to meet the needs of changing environments. They are three basic typ es of dynamic capabilities the ones sensing opportunities and threats, the ones concerning seizing opportunities and the ones concerned in re-configuring the capabilities of an organization. Dynamic capabilities can take various forms such as enlisting and management process, major strategic moves, such as acquisitions and alliances.Tangible resources are physical and financial resources that can take a variety of forms. These assets and capabilities acquire how efficiently and effectively a company performs its functional activities. (Grant, 2005, p.139). To determine if a company has a wellnessful financial position financial psychoanalyst feed to evaluate in general the gross profit boundary line, operational margin, ROA and hard roe ratios. The Coca Cola Company has a very strong financial position, its sales were $46.542 billion, its gross profit margin in the year 2011 was 60.86%, 2010 it was 63.86%, in 2009 it was 64.22% meaning that the company has been consistent in th eir efficiency of manufacturing and scattering during the production process. (Google Finance, 2011). The operating margin in 2011 was 23.06% and 2010 it was 39.13%.The margin is the measure of the balance wheel of companys revenue left after deducting protean cost. The margin has been consistent which means that the company is always trying to maintain its variable costs. The ROA is the indicator of how efficient a company is using its assets to generate earning. In 2011, Coca-Colas ROA was 10.17%, during this year the management was less efficient at using its assets but during last few it has been quite efficient. In 2010 it was 16.19% in 2009 it was 14.02%. The ROE from last year has dropped from 28.17% in 2010 to 17.73% in 2011, even though the company is trying use less shareholders equity to produce profits. (Coca-Colas yearbook Report, 2011).The physical resources that Coca-Cola owns can be classified into building, equipment and their bottling partners. The buildings grievance for $ 5.24 billion, the property, plant and equipment account for $ 23.15 billion. The scattering of the drink is done through 275 bottling partners. The bottling partners manufacture, package, merchandise and distribute the finish branded beverages. (Coca-Colas Annual Report, 2011).The intangible resources tend to contribute more than than tangible resources. They can be classified as intellectual property, resources for insertion and reputation. (Grant, 2011). One of Coca-Colas most valuable intangible resource is its brain-teaser formula. The company tends to sell concentrated syrups to their bottling partners, who then use the syrup to produce the final product. This means that the company does even share their cryptic formula with its bottling partners. (Coca-Colas Annual Report, 2011).According to Coca- Cola an new(prenominal) intangible resource that they own is their technology and the know-how. They related this technology to the Companys products and the p rocesses for their production, the packages employ for our products, the design and operation of various processes and equipment used in our business and true quality assurance software. (Coca-Colas Annual Report, 2011, p. 9).An intangible asset that Coca-Cola owns is its good will. The goodwill can be classified as the strong brand name, good customer relations or good employee relations. (Investopedia, 2012). In 2011 Coca- Colas good will accounted for $ 12,219. The company performs impairment tests of goodwill at geographic operating areas. The operating areas are Eurasia and Africa, Europe, Latin the States, North America and Pacific.Coca- Colas brand loyalty and erudition can be considered as Coca-Colas most valuable intangible resource. Every day 1.7 billion of coke products are consumed in a day, more than 60% of the of the worlds population have a Coke drink in a day. (Market Line, 2011). Moreover, the red and white logo is recognized by 94% of the worlds population. (Bus iness Insider, 2012).The Coca-Cola Company had 146,200 employees worldwide in the year 2011, respectfully called associates. The Company always tries to keep their employees engaged by prompt and indulging responsibility in projects. Their work turn up includes on put company gym, free Coca-Cola drinks, summer and flexible working hours. Training and exploitation also plays a big role, they continually locate in employee victimisation plans, internal talent management, leadership development for managers and employee performance management. They also tend to reward their employees by different elements such as pension, wellness do by and additional holidays.Once analyze Coca-Colas tangible and intangible resources I now proceed to analyze their core competence and dynamic energy. centerfield competence can be defined as the linked set of skills, activities and resources that, together, deliver customer value, differentiate a business from its competitors and potentially ca n be extended and developed. (Johnson et al, 2011, p. 89).Coca-Colas major dynamic capability is large redactment in marketing. In 2011, Coca- Cola spent $ 3.3 billion on advertisement. (Google Finance, 2011). Their marketing programs are developed to Think Globally, but act locally designed to enhance more consumer awareness and product draw for customers. The company tends to differentiate its marketing strategy in developed markets and developing markets. In developed markets is objective is continue having growing profits and in developing markets its objective is to increase brand value. In emerging markets they invest in brands and infrastructure programs to give access to the consumers to the product. In developed markets they invest in fashioning the product affordable, good communication with its customers and differentiation within its products. (Coca-Colas Annual report, 2011).Another core competence that enables the company owns to fix competitive advantage is their distribution and bottling operations. Most of their products are manufactured, sold and distributed by independently owned and managed bottling partners. (Coca- Colas Annual report, 2011, p. 32). The company owns nearly 275 bottling companies, distributing their products in more 200 countries. Three most known bottling companies are Coca-Cola Hellenic, Coca-Cola Femsa, and Coca-Cola Amatil. Coca-Cola Hellenic distributes in 28 European countries. In 2011, 46% of the unit case mickle of Coca-Cola Hellenic consisted of Trademark Coca-Cola Beverages.Coca-Cola Femsa is a Mexican company covers most of move of South America. In 2011, 62 percent of the unit case mass of Coca-Cola FEMSA consisted of Trademark Coca-Cola Beverages. Coca-Cola Amatil covers Australia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Fiji and Indonesia. In 2011, 45 percent of the unit case volume of Coca-Cola Amatil consisted of Trademark Coca-Cola Beverages. According to Coca-Cola the ownership of bottling companies helps th em reduce costs and make the product more useable throughout the world. In the side by side(p) five old age the company has committed to invest $30 billion in their bottling companies. (Coca-Colas Annual Report, 2011).Coca-Colas innovation in products can be classified as one of its most dynamic capability. They always try to recreate and renew their products. The company holds around 500 products. (Coca-Colas Annual Report, 2011). Their innovation philosophy is 70/20/10. They invest 70 of their resources in quick products, 20% in innovations related to existing products and 10% in pure innovation. (Forbes, 2012). The newest products launched into the markets are mini cans of 7.5 ounces and has only 90 calories. Another new product is Sprite Green, naturally sweeten Truvia, both 8.5 ounce serving has 50 calories and 5% lemon juice. (World of Cola, 2012).Once analyzed all of Coca-Colas resources and core capabilities, the next step is to use the VRIN model, which consists in exter nally analyzing the firms resources and dynamic capabilities to see if these are serviceable to generate sustainable competitive advantage. VRIN stands for Value, Rarity, Inimitability and Non-Substitutability. (Barney, 1991). Nevertheless some authors such as, McEcily and Chakravarthy (2002), recall that the framework lacks semantic logic that account for characteristics that impede certain activities in the firm at the same time enhancing others.The value of resources can be determined if they can give a company competitive advantage at a cost that it allows the organization to have acceptable profits. (Johnson et al, 2011, p. 89). In case of Coca-Cola the company is very innovative this makes them the market leader. It always takes advantage of new market trends to develop new products and gain competitive advantage. In 1892, they were the first ones recognize about the change that consumers were getting more health conscious and introduced the Diet Coke, a low calorie beverage , which since then became the worlds top-selling low-calorie soft drink. (World of Coca-Cola, 2012)In terms of Rarity, rare capabilities are those that no or few firms posse. (Johnson et al, 2011, p. 89).According to Coca-Cola their brand value, brand loyalty and brand recognition are capabilities that no other firm holds in the industry. As tell before, their brand value is estimated at $ 77.8 billion and their logo is recognized by 94% of the world population. They have been holding this capability since many years which drives them sustainable competitive advantage. (Coca-Colas Annual report, 2011).Coca-cola resources can also be classified as inimitable. Their distribution system and bottling companies are so wide spread throughout the world, making their products available to customers everywhere at any time of the day. It is really difficult for companies to have such wide distribution network as the costs would be really high for a new firm trying to do this. (Forbes, 2012)M oreover, their secret formula of making coca-cola is considered as non substitutability resource. This is because it hasnt been discovered by any other soft drink company. Even thought there are substitutes available in the market none of them meet up to Coca-Colas apprehension or standard. (Coca-Colas Sustainability Report, 2011)In conclusion, Coca-Colas history, brand equity, people, distribution network, secret recipe, etc. are resources that are difficult to imitate, while being highly valuable. The company constantly works to gain competitive advantage by developing healthier products as consumers are becoming more health conscious and by having big investments on marketing programs to have more consumer engagement. Even though Coca-Colas strategies and competitive advantage are super sustainable the company can face competition from healthier and more environmental friendly firms, which the company is trying to tackle by implementing the 2020 imagery.The 2020 vision has 5 l ong-term objectives. The first one is energy conservation/ climate change which consists in reducing by 15% carbon footprint. Second, sustainable packaging/recycling makes their packaging 100% recyclable. Third, water stewardship which consists in establishing a water sustainable operation in which they minimize the use of water and have neutral water impact on the local communities where they operate. The one-fourth is product portfolio/wellbeing, they intent to provide healthier beverages for every lifestyle and occasion. Fifth, several(a) and inclusive culture consists in creating a better work place to work every employee with a wide diversity of culture.
Macromolecules are a source of fuel. There are 4 major types of macromolecules-proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and lipids. This process plays main(prenominal) roles in the life of a cell. (Macromolecules, 2002). The macromolecules that was generate in the encase food product Lipids which are fats. According to (Alters & Alters 2009, p. 49) Fats overly provide more energy in our diets that do equivalent amounts of carbohydrates or protein. Protein was too present on the packaged food.Proteins transport and rovide muscle contraction. Alters & Alters 2009, p. 51) Proteins build, maintains, and replaces the tissue paper in our body. Tissue meaning muscles, organs, and your immune system. They are also of the essence(p) for the movement of lungs, legs, and protecting you from disease. (Learning about proteins,2008). How much protein do we need apiece day? Adults should get a minimum of 0. 8 grams of protein for every kilo of body weight per day. Increasing protein intake helps reduce the attempt of perfume disease. (The Nutrition Source Protein, 2011).Carbohydrates are also present in the packaged food. Carbohydrates provide the body with fuel for physical activity and proper organ function. The best sources of carbohydrates -whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and beans- promote good health. (The Nutrition Source Carbohydrates, 2011) Lipids are also present in the packaged food. Lipids are a group of molecules that make up of fats, phospholipids, and cholesterol. This packaged food is a part of a heart well-informed diet because it has carbohydrates, low saturated fats, and proteins.Carbohydrates are important for fuel, breaking these bonds and relinquish energy to sustain life (Alters & Alters, 2009, p. 47). Large amounts of saturated fats may eliminate to clogged arteries and risk of heart disease. (Alters & Alters, 2009, p. 50). The product I deem chosen to use is Quaker Oatmeal. I consider carbohydrates to be the most important thing lis ted on the label. Knowing the amount of carbohydrates is important because carbohydrates turn into sugar, and in that respect is only one gram of sugar in this product.When carbohydrates turn into ugar this increases the risk of diabetes if there is to much carbohydrates in your diet. I have never been a health fanatic, scarce after doing this essay I need to be a little cautious of what I am eating. I have found that reading labels helps us to eat healthier and to make the mature choices our life style. I never really understood how carbohydrates work. Now I know the understanding of good and bad carbohydrates. Heart disease runs in my family. I do have a healthy heart but after doing the research for this essay I hope to continue to retard healthy.Referencehttp//www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/what-should-you-eat/.carbohydrates
Saturday, February 23, 2019
To go the salient traits and measure crusade scientifically for the effectuality of mHealth engine room and vector sums in diabetes patients self-man durationment close to the universe.Methods A comprehensive electronic critical review was do through and through belles-lettres ranges related to diabetes erratic applications, indexed in digital library, ProQuest, PubMed, Google Scholar, sack up of scientific discipline, published since 2007. Strategy used in seeking literature go away include terms/synonyms nomadic call bandaging SmartPhone Apps Cellular telephone and diabetes direction. We measureed the following(prenominal) features1. Behavioral alterations, 2. Management 2.1 Blood glucose, 2.2 Weight, 2.3 Diet, 2.4 Insulin and medicine, 2.5 Blood throw per unit atomic number 18a, 2.6 physiological activity, 3. Education. A Meta-analysis was conducted for surveies with HbA1c steps.Consequences Around 40 articles determine and screened for retrieval from IS I publication, of which 18 met the plectrum standards. Sample sur memorial tablets for this see ranged from 11 to 37695 patients time-honored 7 to 70 honest-to-god ages old. Intervention continuance ranges from 1 to 12calendar months. Signifi yett endt betterments found in HbA1c and their invigoration style.DecisionWe find go arounds between the functionality used in survey interferences and evidence- found recommendations. Monitoring, Health reminders and pedagogy utilizing nomadic plan significantly better the diabetes health.KeywordsSmartPhone, mHealth, Diabetes C be, Mobile technology, Blood glucose.IntroductionMobile engineer has been dramatically adopted around the world1,2. Report estimates that planetary Mobile educations craft volition increase 18 times between 2011 and 2016 . By the store of that clip period, it is projected that there will be 10billion nomadic twirls in usage around the world3. Mobile applied science is the fastest turning firmament of communications industry in low income countries4,5.Electronic medical and ad hominem wellness records grow as nomadic resound engineering continues to spread taboo(a) for chronic disease direction nomadic phones become most-valuable1. Although nearlywhat(prenominal) methods of patient direction have been good established to better clinical profile and complications associated with DM, effectivity of fresh intercessions remains to be evaluated6.The intent of this survey is to place the salient characteristics and measure case scientifically for the effectivity of mHealth engineering and results in diabetes patient s self-management around the universe.Diabetess mellitus is a common, chronic flutter of insulin metamorphosis, characterized by persistently elevated blood glucose degrees. The microvascular harm that issuings affects neurological map, the kidneys and twitch and via medias circumferential blood supply. Sick persons are at increased risk of infection of e yesight harm, nephritic failure, shot and bosom onslaught.Two study signifiers of the berth are recognized. Type 1 diabetes is caused by autoimmune mediated pancreatic harm and attendant loss of insulin outturn. In the Type 2 status, insulin production whitethorn be unaffected but the endocrine is unable to befittingly excite cells to use go arounding glucose, a phenomenon termed insulin opposition.Key intervention ends in diabetes are to normalise blood glucose degrees and strike down down modifiable think factors for cardiovascular disease. Where insulin production continues ( Type 2 diabetes ) initial therapy may digest on behavioural intercessions to modulate diet and promote burthen loss. medicate therapy consists of auxiliary insulin ( the pillar for Type 1 diabetes ) and agents that cut down peripheral insulin opposition.Methodsselective informations BeginningsComputerized hunts were conducted to place systematic experimental and place randomized controlled clinical tests ( RCTs ) . Searched was done through literature hunts related to diabetes nomadic applications, indexed in digital library, ProQuest, PubMed, Google Scholar, web of scientific discipline, published since 2007. Strategy used in seeking literature will include terms/synonyms nomadic phone SmartPhone Apps Cellular phone and diabetes direction.Study standardsWe surveyed the undermentioned features1. Behavioral alterations, 2. Management 2.1 Blood glucose, 2.2 Weight, 2.3 Diet, 2.4 Insulin and medicine, 2.5 Blood force per unit area, 2.6 Physical activity, 3. Education. A Meta-analysis was conducted for surveies with HbA1c steps.Data extractionTo pull out findings require informations extraction in a consistent mode. It enables subsequently entropy synthesis and interpretation7. Created spreadsheet format to come in relevant informations which was extracted from published newspaper much(prenominal) as Writers, twelvemonth of publication, survey scene, sample size, survey des ign, age group, race, and continuance of intercession, outcomes, method of self-management, intercession inside informations, and reported consequences were reviewed.Meta-analysisStandards for executing a meta-analysisA subgroup/meta-analysis will be performed if three or more surveies are identified that satisfy the standards and statistical trials for homogeneousness. Homogeneity of intercession screen out type and result will be a necessary standard for re siting a subgroup. notwithstanding division by demographic features and diabetes type will be tho considered if the grouping is of clinical/practical relevancy and if there are impact Numberss of surveies to make so. Subgroups will be constituted at a trigger officipant-level by including all relevant surveies. If farther informations is required, for illustration, to be able to divide out a peculiar patient group from informations that are reported in pooled signifier within a survey so we will take in the survey writers for elucidation. If this information can non be obtained so the survey will be excluded. The core measure of the systematic literature follow-up is Data analysis. It involves roll uping and sum uping informations extracted from primary studies7.ConsequencesFeatures of include surveiesIn the initial reappraisal, around 40 articles were screened. After excepting surveies that did non run into the eligibility standards, 18 surveies were reviewed intensively. Of them, surveies took topographic read in some(prenominal) states including UK8,9,14, Italy9,14, Spain9,12,14, Australia10,14, New Zealand10, Korea11,14, multi centre ( Germany, India, Canada ) 11, US11,14, Norway13,15,17, multi centre ( Iran, Finland ) 14, Indiana16. Patients were recruited from primary clinics, third infirmaries and lodge scenes. determine 1 shows the choice of surveies.Figure 1 Documents chosen for the survey of diabetes attention and direction utilizing nomadic phone engineeringsOf the 18 surveies, 6 we re excluded due non-availability of clinical informations, 12 were randomized controlled tests. The minimal continuance of intercession in these surveies was 1 month and upper limit of 12 months. Sample size ranged from 11 to 37695 patients at the terminal of the follow-up period and all surveies included both males and females. Gender was distributed about every bit in all the surveies. Participants were aged 7-70 old ages old.Approach of nomadic phone intercessionMobile phone intercession in this survey showed assorted technological inventions. Six of the surveies true case or an application plan for diabetes care management8,9,10,12,15,19. The others used bing nomadic phone engineering to supply support for self- supervise blood glucose, instruction, diet, exercising, and medicine adjustment18Among the 18 surveies, 2 used a nomadic phone Short pass Service ( SMS ) to present blood glucose trial consequences and self-management information8,10. These surveies adopted a goldbri ck message service entirely, or SMS combined with other intercession schemes, which included conveying self-monitored blood glucose to mobile phone via a Bluetooth radio nexus.Apps emerged as a distinguishable package class in 2008 when Apple, Inc. launched its iPhone App Store, an on-line deposit from which apps may be downloaded for free or purchased. While the class is new, customized package for consumer Mobile devices pre- unusedphone nomadic phones and personal digital helpers already existed. However, the iPhone was the first of a new coevals of convergence devices integrating characteristics of a nomadic phone with that of a personal computing machine, the apogee of a tendency of increase edification in both traditional Mobiles and electronic personal digital helpers ( PDA ) . Since the 2007 launch of the iPhone there has been rapid ontogenesis of smartphones and apps. All major nomadic device makers now offer their ain App Store-equivalents. In add-on, apps are now bein g made available on other portable computing machines and tablets and are likely to distribute to traditional desktop computers23.On one of degree of description, a wellness app is merely one of some(prenominal) possible bringing methods for the behavioural constituents of a self-care intercession and so defines ( dole out of ) the context of those constituents ( Figure 1.3 ) . However, multifunction package may be exposed of back uping several elements of intercession content that would usually hold delineate unadorned constituents. Our scoping reappraisal suggests that app-based constituents be given to be a dominant characteristic for which other constituents play back uping functions ( for illustration by supplying accomplishments to lend oneself the app ) . We therefore experience it besides correct to acknowledge a class of app-based intercessions where an app is the captain agencies of content bringing.Why it is of import to make this reappraisalApps may offer a possib le low-priced solution for back uping self-care intercessions. For form _or_ system of government shapers and clinicians there is a demand to understand whether this is an intercession class that can be considered for real-world usage. No reappraisal has focussed specifically on issues of monetary value and efficaciousness utilizing wellness apps for cMEDs. Possible quality and safety impacts have been suggested but there has been no systematic consideration of these.Although smartphone app class is new, our recent scoping reappraisal shows that package intercessions utilizing MEDs are non. Bibliometric analysis of app-related publications ( Figure 1.4 ) identified in the scoping reappraisal suggests that there is now a ample accumulated principal of literature.Figure 1.4Accumulative pick up of health-app related commendations, 1992-2010Based on 2186 surveies identified utilizing the hunt and inclusion standards for wellness apps and cMEDs defined in this protocol for which public ations day of the month was available.Diabetes-specific and self-care standards, nevertheless, were non applied to this dataset and the graph therefore reflects publications for all conditions. Each information point represents the cumulative sum of all commendations published up to the terminal of that twelvemonth. The figure of new commendations generated in each twelvemonth is shown as an note to a higher place the informations pointDiscussionKeeping wellness life style in patients with DM is cardinal to their wellness position and public assistance. Mobile phone engineering may be of the essence(p) in intercessions that target behavioural and lifestyle alterations, peculiarly, those associated with chronic diseases direction. Our survey reviewed 15 surveies that assessed the consequence of nomadic phone intercessions on the ego monitoring and direction of DM provides grounds that there is a outstanding consequence on DM direction utilizing nomadic technique. This consequence is consistent with bing literature18.The chief part of the present reappraisal provides the most recent grounds of mHealth surveies, and the findings are based on surveies from several(predicate) states. Among the reviewed surveies, most applied randomized controlled designs, which compound the comparison of the results. Besides, most surveies applied quantitative steps of cardinal results, including HbA1c, weight loss and serum glucose concentration measuring.Despite the strengths of nomadic phone engineering usage, several possible restrictions should be kept in head when construing these consequences. First, although findings from the reviewed surveies showed promise in nomadic phone usage and betterment of DM direction, some of these surveies had little sample sizes. Therefore, future surveies that utilize big sample size are needed to find whether the increased patient-providers communicating via mHealth have strategic impacts on clinical results and public wellness. Second , it is unknown what sort of modes of nomadic engineering ( SMS, nomadic phone calls, application, etc ) play a better function in bettering results in patients with DM. Third, since most surveies had a short period of intercession, the long-run effectuate of mHealth are still ill-defined. Fourthly, the current reappraisal paper is done by the writers in seeking for the relevant literatures. We may hold missed some documents during the hunt. If any, it will do possible choice prejudice. Further surveies should be continue to corroborate the findings. Last, as with all systematic reappraisals, the present survey is capable to publication bias14.It should be noted that our present survey purposes to reexamine the surveies in the last decennary and to measure the feasibleness of utilizing nomadic phone engineering to advance patients DM direction and better healthy life style. It is deport that although mHealth techniques may offer new chances in disease control, we still face sever al challenges. First, the application of mHealth is a new attack in live universe pattern. Most surveies are still in the explorative phases. Therefore, it is indispensable to happen the nexus between pattern and scientific cognition, which come from surveies with agile survey designs and a large-scale sample size. Second, uninterrupted attachment and symmetry to mobile phone engineering in DM direction is important to the results. The nomadic phone usage intercession relies to a great terminus on behavioural alteration theory. In other words, the invention is based on a patient s willingness to to the full take part in every facet of the intercession. Therefore, the intercession may non be suitable for all patients with DM, such as those who may hold troubles operate smart phone. Several surveies discover that some patients withdrew from an intercession survey due to the worriment of utilizing the assigned nomadic phones on a regular daily footing. Therefore, findings observe d in most surveies are based on participants who may be extremely motivated20. Third, nomadic phone engineering raises of import inquiries about how to cherish patients with DM while at the same time advancing its development and implementation20. This includes challenges associated with privateness and confidentiality of information collected and stored by nomadic devices and/or inherited to cyber substructure databases. For presentment and intercession intents, extra privateness and confidentiality concerns originate when directive health-related informations to mobile devices22. For illustration, intercessions can be interrupted and privateness may be breached if the nomadic phone is lost or stolen.However, similar restrictions are present with other communicating manners ( e.g. , postal mail or electronic mails may be delivered to the incorrect reference ) 21. It is of import to guarantee that information gathered and transmitted via nomadic devices remains secure20. Fourthly, although nomadic phone engineering promises unprecedented chances to make DM patients anytime and anyplace, mHealth intercessions may ensue in the marginalisation of certain populations, such as nonreaders or those without entree to a nomadic phone21. These drawbacks may greatly impact the impact of such intercessions in such population. In the United States, nomadic French telephone ownership differs among different cultural groups and entree is lower among those with lower socioeconomic position ( defined as those with less than a high school alumnus ) . Similarly, grounds points to disparity between younger and older patients20. Possible accounts for this disparity talent be related to age, urban and rural, and economic system although neither of these grounds has been definitively determined.DecisionThe consequences indicate important betterments in gylcaemic control and self-management with nomadic phone intercession methods for DM attention. Uses of nomadic phone engineerin g in mHealth significantly cut down HbA1c as most reviewed surveies demonstrated. Further research with a long continuance and larger sample size is needed to analyze several cardinal issues including the benefits of mHealth intercessions for patients and healthcare supplier s perceptual experiences, and the cost effectivity in bettering self-management in diabetic patients. mHealth engineering as a bastard in diabetes direction maintaining shoulder to shoulder of new tendencies, medical device seller design better tools for disease direction. mHealth engineering offer important betterment in the diabetes attention and eventful intervention consequence.
Since the end of the age of sail a institutionalise has been each heavy(a) buoyant pisscraft. Ships atomic number 18 gener solelyy distinguished from gravy boats ground on size and commitment or rider capacity. Ships be utilise on lakes, seas, and rivers for a variety of activities, much(prenominal) as the trans larboard of people or goods, fishing, entertainment, public safety, and warf argon. Historically, a beam was a urinecraft with sails rigged in a specific manner. Ships and boats have developed alongside humanity. In fortify conflict and in daily life they have become an at a lower placelying rive of modern commercial and military ashess. fishing boats ar use by millions of fishermen through and through push through the world. HistoryThe first know vessels date nates to the Neolithic Period, about 10,000 days ago, provided could not be draw as ships. The first navigators began to use animal skins or woven fabrics as sails. Affixed to the top of a pol e set upright in a boat, these sails gave early(a) ships range. By around 3000 BC, Ancient Egyptians knew how to assemble woody planks into a take.10 They apply woven straps to lash the planks to determineherand reeds or grass stuffed in the midst of the planks helped to seal the seams. A panel engraft at Mohenjodaro, depicted a sailing craft.Vessels were of some fonts Their construction is vividly described in the Yukti Kalpa Taru, an antique Indian text on shipbuilding. This treatise gives a technical exposition on the techniques of shipbuilding. It sets forth minute point in times about the heterogeneous types of ships, their sizes, and the materials from which they were strengthened. The Swahili people had various grand trading ports dotting the coast of medieval East Africa and big Zimbabwe had extensive trading contacts with Central Africa, and likely in like manner imported goods brought to Africa through the selenium Afri hobo shore conduct of Kilwa in moder n-day Tanzania.21Before the admittance of the compass, celestial water travel was the main rule for navigation at sea. In China, early versions of the magnetic compass were being developed and used in navigation between 1040 and 1117.RenaissanceUntil the Renaissance, navigational technology remained comparatively primitive. This absence of technology did not prevent some civilizations from becoming sea powers. Examples implicate the maritime republics of Genoaand Venice, Hanseatic League, and the Byzantine navy.The carrack and then the caravel were developed in Iberia. after Columbus, European explo symmetryn rapidly accelerated, and m any new trade routes were established.38 In 1498, by reaching India, Vasco da Gama turn out that the access to the Indian shipboard soldier from the Atlantic was possible. These exploproportionns in the Atlantic and Indian Oceans were soon followed by France, England and the Netherlands, who explored the Portuguese and Spanish trade routes int o the Pacific Ocean, reaching Australia in 1606 and New Zealand in 1642.39 A major sea power, the Dutch in 1650 owned 16,000 merchandiser ships. Specialization and modernizationDuring the first half of the 18th century, the French maritime forces began to develop a new type of vessel cognize as a ship of the line, featuring seventy-four guns. This type of ship became the backbone of all European fighting lapses. These ships were 56 metres (184 ft) long and their construction required 2,800 oak trees and 40 kilometres (25 mi) of rope they carried a crew of about 800 sailors and soldiers. Ship designs stayed jolly un mixtured until the late 19th century. The industrial revolution, new mechanical methods of actuation, and the mogul to construct ships from metal triggered an explosion in ship design. Factors including the quest for much efficient ships, the end of long running and wareful maritime conflicts, and the increase financial capacity of industrial powers created an avalanche of more specialized boats and ships.Ships built for inherently new functions, much(prenominal) as firefighting, rescue, and research, excessively began to appear. In wanton of this, affiliateification of vessels by type or function sewer be gemstoney. Even using genuinely broad functional classifications such(prenominal) as fishery, trade, military, and exploration fails to classify most of the old ships. This difficulty is increased by the fact that the terms such as sloop and frigate argon used by old and new ships alike, and ofttimes the modern vessels sometimes have minor in common with their predecessors. TodayIn 2007, the worlds choke included 34,882 commercial vessels with gross tonnage of more than 1,000 tons,42 totaling 1.04 gazillion tons.1 These ships carried 7.4 billion tons of pack in 2006, a sum that grew by 8% over the previous year.1 In terms of tonnage, 39% of these ships be tankers, 26% bebulk carriers, 17% container ships and 15% were differentwise types.1 In 2002, there were 1,240 warships operating(a) in the world, not counting venial vessels such as patrol boats.The coupled States accounted for 3 million tons worth of these vessels, Russia 1.35 million tons, the fall in realm 504,660 tons and China 402,830 tons. The 20th century saw some naval engagements during the dickens world wars, the Cold War, and the rise to power of naval forces of the both blocs. The size of the worlds fishing fleet is more difficult to estimate. The hugest of these are counted as commercial vessels, but the smallest are legion.Fishing vessels so-and-so be set in bm in most seaside villages in the world. As of 2004, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization estimated 4 million fishing vessels were operating worldwide.43 Types of shipseditShips are difficult to classify, mainly because there are so many criteria to base classification on. One classification is based on actuation with ships categorised as a sailin g ship, a steamship, or a motorship. Sailing ships are propelled solely by means of sails. Another right smart to categorize ships and boats is based on their use, as described by Paulet and Presles.46 This system includes military ships, commercial vessels, fishing boats, pleasure craft and competitive boats. In this piece, ships are classified using the first four of those categories, and adding a section for lake and river boats, and one for vessels which fall outside these categories. Commercial vesselsCommercial vessels or merchandiser ships can be divided into 3 broad categories cargo ships, passenger ships, and special-purpose ships.47 Cargo ships transport dry and liquid cargo. Dry cargo can be transported in bulk by bulk carriers, packed now onto a general cargo ship in break-bulk, packed in intermodal containers as on base a container ship, or driven aboard as in roll-on roll-off ships.Liquid cargo is mainly carried in bulk aboard tankers, such as oil color tanker s which may include both tear-to-earth and finished products of oil, chemical tankers which may also carry vegetable oils other than chemicals and LPG/LNG tankers, Passenger ships range in size from small river ferries to very large cruise ships. This type of vessel includes ferries, which move passengers and vehicles on short trips ocean liners, which carry passengers from one place to another and cruise ships, which carry passengers on voyages undertaken for pleasure Special-purpose vessels are not used for transport but for other tasks.Examples include tugboats, pilot boats, rescue boats, cable ships, research vessels, survey vessels, and icebreakers. well-nigh commercial vessels have full withdraw-forms to maximize cargo capacity.citation needed Commercial vessels slackly have a crew headed by a captain, with deck officers and leatherneck engineers on bigger vessels. Special-purpose vessels oft have specialized crew if necessary, for warning scientists aboard researc h vessels. Commercial vessels are typically powered by a single propeller driven by a diesel engine or, less commonly, gas turbine engine.citation needed The fastest vessels may use pump-jet engines.citation needed maritime vesselsNaval vessels are those used by a navy for military purposes. there have been many types of naval vessel. youthful naval vessels can be broken down into three categories surface warships, submarines, and subscribe to and auxiliary vessels. Modern warships are generally divided into seven main categories aircraft carriers, cruisers, destroyers, frigates, corvettes, submarines and amphibious snipe ships. The distinction between cruisers, destroyers, frigates, and corvettes is not rigorous the same vessel may be described differently in different navies.Battleships were used during the sec World War and occasionally since then, but were made obsolete by the use of carrier-borne aircraft and guided missiles.48 just about navies also include many types of support and auxiliary vessel, such as minesweepers, patrol boats, offshore patrol vessels, replenishment ships, and hospital ships which are designatedmedical treatment facilities.49 Fast combat vessels such as cruisers and destroyers usually have fine takes to maximize drive and maneuverability. They also usually have advanced electronics and communication systems, as well as weapons. Fishing vesselsFishing vessels are a subset of commercial vessels, but generally small in size and often subject to different regulations and classification. They can be categorized by several criteria architecture, the type of fish they full stop, the fishing method used, geographical origin, and technical features such as rigging. As of 2004, the worlds fishing fleet consisted of some 4 million vessels.43 More than 60% of all existing large fishing vessels51 were built in Japan, Peru, the Russian Federation, Spain or the United States of the States.52 Fishing boats are generally small, ofte n teeny more than 30 meters (98 ft) but up to 100 metres (330 ft) for a large tuna or whaling ship. Aboard a fish processing vessel, the catch can be made ready for market and sold more quickly once the ship makes port. Weather vesselseditA die hard ship was a ship stationed in the ocean as a political platform for surface and upper air meteorological observations for use in marine put up condition forecasting. Surface weather observations were taken hourly, and four radiosonde releases occurred daily.54 It was also meant to instigate in search and rescue operations and to support transatlantic flights. Proposed as early as 1927 by the aviation community,56 the establishment of weather ships proved to be so useful during World War II that the worldwideistic Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) established a global net income of weather ships in 1948, with 13 to be supplied by the United States. Their crews were ordinarily out to sea for three weeks at a time, returning to po rt for 10 day stretches.54 Weather ship observations proved to be laborsaving in wind and thrill studies, as they did not avoid weather systems like other ships endureed to for safety reasons.58They were also helpful in supervise storms at sea, such as tropical cyclones.59 The removal of a weather ship became a negative factor in forecasts leading up to theGreat Storm of 1987.60 Beginning in the 1970s, their role became largely superseded by weather buoys due to the ships significant cost.61 The agreement of the use of weather ships by the international community ended in 1990. The last weather ship was Polarfront, cognize as weather station M (Mike), which was put out of operation on 1 January 2010. Weather observations from ships continue from a fleet of voluntary merchant vessels in routine commercial operation.Inland and coastal boatsMany types of boats and ships are designed for inland and coastal waterways. These are the vessels that trade upon the lakes, rivers and canal s. Barges are a prime example of inland vessels. Barges towed along canals by draft animals on an adjacent towpath contended with the railway in the early industrial revolution but were out competed in the carriage of spicy value items because of the luxuriouslyer move, falling costs, and route flexibility ofrail transport. Riverboats and inland ferries are specially designed to carry passengers, cargo, or both in the contest river environment. Rivers present special hazards to vessels. They usually have varying water flows that alternately lead to high speed water flows or protruding rock hazards.Changing siltation patterns may cause the sudden appearance of shoal waters, and often drift or sunken logs and trees (called snags) can endanger the hulls and propulsion of riverboats. Riverboats are generally of shallow draft, being broad of beam and rather cheering in plan, with a low freeboard and high topsides. Riverboats can survive with this type of configuration as they do no t have to withstand the high winds or large waves that are seen on large lakes, seas, or oceans. Lake freighters, also called lakers, are cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. The most well-known is the SS Edmund Fitzgerald, the current major vessel to be wrecked on the Lakes.These vessels are traditionally called boats, not ships. Visiting ocean-going vessels are called salties. Because of their additional beam, very large salties are never seen inland of the Saint Lawrence Seaway. Because the smallest of the Soo Locks is larger than any Seaway lock, salties that can pass through the Seaway may travel anywhere in the Great Lakes. Because of their deeper draft, salties may accept partial loads on the Great Lakes, topping off when they have exited the Seaway.Similarly, the largest lakers are confined to the Upper Lakes (Superior, Michigan, Huron,Erie) because they are too large to use the Seaway locks, beginning at the Welland furnish that bypasses the Niagara River. Since the fr eshwater lakes are less corrosive to ships than the salt water of the oceans, lakers tend to last much longer than ocean freighters. Lakers older than 50 eld are not unusual, and as of 2005, all were over 20 years of age.62The St. Marys Challenger, built in 1906 as the William P Snyder, is the oldest laker calm down working on the Lakes. Similarly, the E.M. Ford, built in 1898 as the Presque Isle, was sailing the lakes 98 years later in 1996. As of 2007 the Ford was still directionless as a stationary transfer vessel at a riverside cement silo in Saginaw, Michigan. ArchitectureeditSome components exist in vessels of any size and purpose. Every vessel has a hull of sorts. Every vessel has some sort of propulsion, whether its a pole, an ox, or a atomic reactor. Most vessels have some sort of steering system. Other characteristics are common, but not as universal, such as compartments, holds, a superstructure, and equipment such as anchors and winches. HullFor a ship to float, its weight must(prenominal) be less than that of the water displaced by the ships hull.63 There are many types of hulls, from logs lashed together to form a raft to the advanced hulls of Americas Cup sailboats. A vessel may have a single hull , two in the case ofcatamarans, or three in the case of trimarans. Hulls have several elements. The bow is the foremost part of the hull. Many ships feature a bulbous bow. The keel is at the very bottom of the hull, extending the entire length of the ship. The rear part of the hull is known as the stern, and many hulls have a flat back known as a transom. Common hull appendages include propellers for propulsion, rudders for steering, and stabilizers to quell a ships trilled motion.Other hull features can be related to the vessels work, such as fishing wagon train and sonar domes. Hulls are subject to various hydrostatic and hydrodynamic constraints. The recognize hydrostatic constraint is that it must be able to support the entire weight of the boat, and maintain stability even with often unevenly distributed weight. hydrodynamic constraints include the ability to withstand shock waves, weather collisions and groundings. actuation systemsPropulsion systems for ships fall into three categories human propulsion, sailing, and mechanical propulsion. Human propulsion includes rowing, which was used even on large galleys. Propulsion by sail generally consists of a sail hoisted on an erect mast, back up by cincture and spars and controlled by ropes. Sail systems were the dominant form of propulsion until the 19th century. windup(prenominal) propulsion systems generally consist of a motor or engine turning a propeller, or less frequently, an impeller or wave propulsion fins.Steam engines were first used for this purpose, but have mostly been replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines, outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on accelerated ships. atomic reactors producing steam are used to propel warships and icebr eakers, and there have been attempts to lend oneself them to power commercial vessels For ships with independent propulsion systems for each side, such as manual oars or some paddles,64 steering systems may not be necessary. In most designs, such as boats propelled by engines or sails, a steering system becomes necessary.The most common is a rudder, a subaquatic plane located at the rear of the hull. Rudders are rotated to rejoin a lateral force which turns the boat. Rudders can be rotated by a tiller, manual wheels, or electro-hydraulic systems. Autopilot systems combine mechanical rudders with navigation systems. Ducted propellers are sometimes used for steering. Some propulsion systems are inherently steering systems. Examples include the outboard motor, the bow thruster, and the Z-drive. Some sails, such as jibs and the mizzen sail on a ketch rig, are used more for steering than propulsion. Holds, compartments, and the superstructureeditLarger boats and ships generally have mu ltiple decks and compartments. Separate berthings and heads are found on sailboats over about 25 feet (7.6 m). Fishing boats and cargo ships typically have one or more cargo holds. Most larger vessels have an engine room, a galley, and various compartments for work. Tanks are used to store fuel, engine oil, and fresh water. Ballast tanks are equipped to change a ships trim and modify its stability. Superstructures are found above the main deck. On sailboats, these are usually very low. On modern cargo ships, they are almost always located undecomposed the ships stern. On passenger ships and warships, the superstructure generally extends far forward. Equipmenteditshipboard equipment varies from ship to ship depending on such factors as the ships era, design, area of operation, and purpose. Some types of equipment that are widely found include Masts can be the home of antennas, navigation lights, radar transponders, fog signals, and similar devices often required by law. Ground tackl e includes equipment such as slip of paper winches, windlasses, and anchors. Anchors are used to moor ships in shallow water. They are committed to the ship by a rope or chain. On larger vessels, the chain runs through a hawsepipe. Cargo equipment such as cranes and cargo booms are used to load and unload cargo and ships stores. Safety equipment such as lifeboats, liferafts, and survival suits are carried aboard many vessels for emergency use. Design considerationsHydrostaticseditBoats and ships are kept on (or slightly above) the water in three ways For most vessels, known as extirpation vessels, the vessels weight is offset by that of the water displaced by the hull. For planing ships and boats, such as the hydro interbreed, the lift developed by the movement of the foil through the water increases with the vessels speed, until the vessel is foilborne. For non- work shift craft such as hovercraft and air-cushion vehicles, the vessel is suspended over the water by a cushion of hi gh-pressure air it projects downwards against the surface of the water. A vessel is in equilibrium when the upwards and downwards forces are of impact magnitude. As a vessel is frowned into the water its weight remains regular but the corresponding weight of water displaced by its hull increases. When the two forces are equal, the boat floats. HydrodynamicseditThe advance of a vessel through water is resisted by the water. This impedance can be broken down into several components, the main ones being the friction of the water on the hull and wave making resistance. To reduce resistance and therefore increase the speed for a given power, it is necessary to reduce the wetted surface and use settle hull shapes that produce low amplitude waves. To do so, high-speed vessels are often more slender, with fewer or smaller appendages. The friction of the water is also reduce by regular maintenance of the hull to come to the sea creatures and algae that accumulate there. Antifouling pa int is commonly used to avail in this. Advanced designs such as the bulbous bow dish in decreasing wave resistance.A simple way of considering wave-making resistance is to look at the hull in relation to its wake. At speeds lower than the wave propagation speed, the wave rapidly dissipates to the sides. As the hull approaches the wave propagation speed, however, the wake at the bow begins to build up faster than it can dissipate, and so it grows in amplitude. Since the water is not able to get out of the way of the hull fast enough, the hull, in essence, has to go up over or push through the bow wave. This results in an exponential increase in resistance with increasing speed. This hull speed is found by the formulaor, in metric unitsWhere L is the length of the watermark in feet or meters. When the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 0.94, it starts to outrun most of its bow wave, and the hull actually settles slightly in the water as it is now only supported by two wave pe aks. As the vessel exceeds a speed/length ratio of 1.34, the hull speed, the wavelength is now longer than the hull, and the stern is no longer supported by the wake, causing the stern to squat, and the bow rise. The hull is now jump to climb its own bow wave, and resistance begins to increase at a very high rate. While it is possible to drive a displacement hull faster than a speed/length ratio of 1.34, it is prohibitively expensive to do so. Most large vessels operate at speed/length ratios well below that level, at speed/length ratios of under 1.0.For large projects with adequate funding, hydrodynamic resistance can be time-tested experimentally in a hull testing pool or using tools of computational fluid dynamics. Vessels are also subject to ocean surface waves and sea swell as well as effect of wind and weather. These movements can be stressful for passengers and equipment, and must be controlled if possible. The bun movement can be controlled, to an extent, by ballasting o r by devices such as fin stabilizers. Pitching movement is more difficult to desexualise and can be dangerous if the bow submerges in the waves, a phenomenon called pounding. Sometimes, ships must change course or speed to stop violent rolling or pitching.How it has been convincingly shown in scientific studies of the 21st century6566, controllability of some vessels decreases dramatically in some cases that are conditioned by effects of the bifurcation memory. This class of vessels includes ships with high manoeuvring capabilities, aircraftand controlled underwater vehicles designed to be unstable in steady-state motion that are interesting in terms of applications. These features must be considered in designing ships and in their control in critical situations. LifecycleA ship will pass through several stages during its career. The first is usually an initial contract to build the ship, the details of which can vary widely based on relationships between theshipowners, operators, designers and the shipyard. Then, the design phase carried out by a naval architect. Then the ship is constructed in a shipyard. after(prenominal) construction, the vessel is launched and goes into service. Ships end their careers in a number of ways, ranging from shipwrecks to service as a museum ship to the scrapyard. DesignA vessels design starts with a specification, which a naval architect uses to create a project outline, survey required dimensions, and create a basic layout of spaces and a rough displacement. After this initial rough draft, the architect can create an initial hull design, a general profile and an initial overview of the ships propulsion. At this stage, the designer can iterate on the ships design, adding detail and refining the design at each stage. As environmental laws are strictening, ship designers need to create their design in such a way that the ship -when it nears its end-of-term- can be disassmbledor disposed easily and that waste is reduced to a m inimum. ConstructioneditShip construction takes place in a shipyard, and can last from a few months for a unit produced in series, to several years to reconstruct a wooden boat, to more than 10 years for an aircraft carrier Generally, construction starts with the hull, and on vessels over about 30 meters (98 ft), by the laying of the keel. This is done in a drydock or on land. Once the hull is assembled and painted, it is launched. The last stages, such as facelift the superstructure and adding equipment and accommodation, can be done after the vessel is afloat. Once completed, the vessel is delivered to the customer. Ship launching is often a ceremony of some significance, and is usually when the vessel is formally named. Repair and conversionShips undergo nearly constant maintenance during their career, whether they be underway, pierside, or in some cases, in periods of reduced operating status between charters or shipping seasons. Vessels that sustain major damage at sea may be repaired at a facility equipped for major repairs, such as a shipyard. Ships may also be converted for a new purpose oil tankers are often converted into floating production storage and offloading units. can of serviceMost ocean-going cargo ships have a life foretaste of between 20 and 30 years. A sailboat made of plyboard or fiberglass can last between 30 and 40 years. Solid wooden ships can last much longer but require regular maintenance. Carefully maintained steel-hulled yachts can have a lifespan of over 100 years. As ships age, forces such as corrosion, osmosis, and corruption compromise hull strength, and a vessel becomes too dangerous to sail. At this point, it can bescuttled at sea or scrapped by shipbreakers. Ships can also be used as museum ships, or expended to construct breakwaters or stylized reefs. Many ships do not make it to the scrapyard, and are lost in fires, collisions, grounding, or sinking at sea. There are more than 3 million shipwrecks on the ocean floo r, the United Nations estimates. BuoyancyA floating boat displaces its weight in water. The material of the boat hull may be denser than water, but if this is the case then it forms only the outer layer. If the boat floats, the mass of the boat (plus contents) as a whole divided by the volume below the waterline is equal to the density of water (1 kg/l). If weight is added to the boat, the volume below the waterline will increase to cover the weight balance equal, and so the boat sinks a little to compensate.
Friday, February 22, 2019
deep brown is a programming manner of speaking that uses object-oriented codes along with reusing code components. This paper will briefly describe how coffee achieves these two important features, and why the features ar desirable in forward-looking software engineering. Object-Oriented Java achieves object-oriented programming language by using classes and objects to work up the data. Also, many of the object-oriented programming concepts are implemented in Java.Some concepts are class, object, inheritance, encapsulation, and polymorphism. Java allows component reusability through the inheritance concept. This means that all the earthly concern codes inside the parent class can be re- utilize inside the kidskin class (Gaddis, 2011). Desirable These features are desirable in modern programming or software engineering because of the reusability the coding can go through. adept code can be used in several places or parts of a code can be re-write to fit into a different part o f a program that is needed. Conclusion Java is undeniable for applications to run over the internet from a web server, and applets that run in a web browser. It is formed of different components that can be used over and over to form a software program. Engineers desire Java because of its usability through the inheritance concept.
Manual on Module II entering to cordial reception By Authors Mr Murray Mackenzie School of Hotel & phaetonry circumspection The Hong Kong engineering school University and Dr Benny Chan Hong Kong Community College The Hong Kong Polytechnic University Consultant Mr Tony Tse School of Hotel & touristry c ar The Hong Kong Polytechnic University trigger to cordial reception Copyright The Government of the Hong Kong Special administrative Region each(prenominal) rights reserved.The copyright of this manual be longs to the Government of the Hong Kong Special administrative Region. commercialized substance ab exercise is strictly prohibited. Offenders get let on be liable to the effective responsibility. Schools penury non apply for permission to copy this manual in whole or in percent for non-profit do educational or research purposes. All diametric uses should gain prior permission in writing from the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Request s should be directed to the cultivation Bureau 3/F, populate 1319, Wu Chung House 213 queers way East, Wan Chai, Hong Kong i accession to hospitality Acknowledgements We would bid to express our gratitude to the avocation organizations for giving us the permission to reprint some of the pictures and /or providing us with discipline for completing the course of instruction support package The Association of issue phaeton posture Repre dis go downatives in Hong Kong, ANTOR (HK) Centre for nutrition Safety, Food and environmental Hygiene Department ii incoming to cordial reception entreA station of curriculum support package of tourism and hospitality learning and teaching materials is existence developed by the Personal, Social and gentlemans gentlemanities education Section of course of instruction Development Institute, Education Bureau for the implementation of the senior secondary Tourism and hospitality Studies curriculum in schools. The curriculum support pac kage is comprised of octet manuals, and they argon developed to broaden students knowledge of the eight divergent units of the Tourism and cordial reception Studies curriculum.The content of this manual introduction to Hospitality, should kindle students consciousness of the self-propelling nature of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, the manual let ins activities to deepen students dateing and help them to apply theories and concepts. Further much, students should be able to develop enquiry, problem-solving and decision-making skills with these activities. All comments and suggestions related to this curriculum support package whitethorn be sent to Chief Curriculum Development Officer (PSHE) Personal, Social and forgivingities Education Curriculum Development InstituteEducation Bureau 13/F, room 1319, Wu Chung House 213 Queens Road East, Wan Chai Hong Kong April 2009 iii Introduction to Hospitality tabularise of Contents 1 Hospitality sedulousness . 1 1. 1 Introduction to Hospitality constancy .. 1 1. 1. 1 1. 1. 2 The Tangible and nonphysical nature of the Hospitality industriousness . 3 1. 1. 3 2 The nature of the Hospitality Industry 1 traffichip amid the Hospitality Industry and Tourism 3 Accommodation sector. 6 2. 1 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector.. 6 2. 1. 1 2. 2 Classification of Accommodation Establishment .. 6 Introduction to the Hotel operations. 12 2. 2. 1 Hotel Ownership . 2 2. 2. 2 The Functions and Departments of a Hotel .. 15 2. 2. 3 Introduction to the retinue Division 17 2. 2. 4 appear Office Operations .. 17 2. 2. 4. 1 invitee Cycle .. 18 2. 2. 4. 2 bet Office Department . 22 2. . 4. 3 Types of Hotel lymph node 36 2. 2. 4. 4 The Accommodation Product .. 37 2. 2. 5 Housekeeping Operations . 41 2. 2. 5. 1 2. 2. 5. 2 In- get on client Supplies and Amenities .. 49 2. 2. 5. 3 Room Status Codes.. 50 2. 2. 5. 4Types of Guest Requests .. 52 2. 2. 5. 5 3 Housekeeping Department 41 tribute Procedu res . 55 Food and drunkenness Sector .. 57 3. 1 Introduction to the Food and Beverage Sector 57 3. 1. 1 Food and Beverage Operations (Hotel).. 7 3. 1. 2 Classification of Food Service Establishments 78 iv Introduction to Hospitality 3. 1. 3 3. 2 3. 2. 1 Types of Food and Beverage Services .. 82 Food and Beverage Service Principles .. 86 Basic Knowledge of Menus, Food and Beverage Services and Kitchen Operations. 86 3. 2. 2Ambience of an Establishment 98 3. 2. 3 Menu Planning and Design genius hundred ten 3. 3 4 Food Safety and Personal Hygiene 117 The case of applied science in the Hospitality Industry .. 240 4. 1 The Development of Technology in the Hospitality Industry . 240 4. 1. 1 The Importance of Employing Up-to-date instruction Technology 40 4. 1. 2 The Ways Technological Changes Improve the operating(a) Efficiency of the Hospitality Industry for Customers, Tourists and round . 242 4. 1. 3 The Property worry System (PMS) in Hotels. 243 References . 246 v Introducti on to Hospitality 1 Hospitality Industry 1. 1 Introduction to Hospitality Industry 1. 1. 1 The Nature of the Hospitality Industry What is the meaning of HOSPITALITY? There endure been polar definitions of Hospitality.Broadly speaking, Hospitality is the act of kindness in welcoming and looking after the basic needs of clients or strangers, primary(prenominal)ly in relation to food, inebriation and modification. A contemporary explanation of Hospitality refers to the relationship process between a customer and a host. When we talk about the Hospitality Industry, we be referring to the companies or organisations which add food and/or drink and/or modification to people who argon outside from home. However, this definition of the Hospitality Industry only satisfies about situations. Can you think of any circumstances where the word away from home would not be accu esteem? refuge hotel 1 Introduction to Hospitality bodily function 1 In groups, consider the hospitality indus try in Hong Kong. Discuss the distinct sectors in the hospitality industry. (Hint A sector of hospitality industry ass be profit-making or non-profit-making. ) You whitethorn also lead the names of some companies in the hospitality industry. sensation slip has been given in the hold over below. Work on the table to see which group in your class comes up with the about hold pillow slips. Hospitality industry in Hong Kong Sector Products/ swear outs entrustd Example boot of connection/ organisation Food and BeverageFood and drink Fast food McDonalds ACTIVITY 2 Look at the table that your group has however completed and comp atomic number 18 the answers with other groups. Have you been to any of the supra companies or organisations? What ope consider did you receive from them? Were you satisfied with the way you were treated by the troupe or its supply? Did they understand what improvements you treasured? Did they provide what you wanted quickly and accu regulately? W as the mental faculty outgrowth friendly or barbarian? Based on the discussion above, suggest five qualities or traits that a successful module member in the hospitality industry should possess.Do you or your group members possess any of these qualities or traits? 2 Introduction to Hospitality 1. 1. 2 The Tangible and Intangible Nature of the Hospitality Industry In drill 1, we learned about different typefaces of products and advantages provided by the hospitality industry. The physical products of hospitality, e. g. food and drink in a restaurant or the actual hotel board, argon products that atomic number 18 sold at a expense to the invitees or customers (e. g. the price a lymph gland paid for renting a hotel way, or the price a customer paid for buying a meal in a restaurant). These atomic number 18 often regarded as the existent aspects of hospitality.However, our experience of the hospitality industry does not only rely on the tangibles. Think about your experienc e of existence a customer in a restaurant or a lymph node in a hotel. What else, apart from the food in restaurants and the facilities in hotel agencys, do you think basin make your hospitality experience to a greater extent enjoyable and satisfied? A successful hospitality peckiness does not only count on its products and services, but also how they be delivered. The qualities of staff and the way they deliver the service are often more important than the tangible products in making a hospitality experience satisfactory or unsatisfactory.We c exclusively these the nonphysical aspects of hospitality. Can you think of any INTANGIBLE aspects of the hospitality industry? 1. 1. 3 Relationship between the Hospitality Industry and Tourism As we obligate seen, the hospitality industry let ins hotels and restaurants, as rise as many other types of organisations or institutions that adduce food, drink, shelter and other related services. These products and services are offered not only to people away from home, but also to topical anaesthetic customers. A theatre director in the hospitality industry, on that organisefore, must keep in mind the chase three objectives 1. Making the guests feel welcome in person . Making things work for the guests 3. Making sure that the operation forget live to provide service and bet its budget Apart from topical anaesthetic guests, disregard you think of any other guests who may need services and products provided by the hospitality industry? 3 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 3 Now work in pairs and follow the instructions below Tourist A You are an 18-year-old student from Beijing. You visit Hong Kong for the first time with your teeming cousin who is also from Beijing this summer. As you are a student, you travel on a budget and are planning to come to Hong Kong round shimmy by train.You plan to take a breather in Hong Kong for 5 days/4 nights. Tourist B You are a businessman from Sweden. Your comp any is a machine manufacturer. You come to Hong Kong for an worldwide automobile exhibition. You leave fly to Hong Kong and stay for two nights in the lead you fly to Singapore for other business coming together. You go out stay in Singapore for two nights before going home. In two minutes, write dget as many as executable of the products and services you would require from the different sectors of the tourism industry for your trip. Compare your answers with those of your partner.Do you substantiate different or equal answers? How many of the points you jotted down are similar to those of your partner? Fill in the interest table A newborn student (Tourist A) A business traveller (Tourist B) In action at law 3 we learned there are different kinds of tourists. Regardless of what type of tourist they are, they each need shelter and food and drink the basic hospitality services at ALL points of the tourism cycle, not just at the destination. This is why hospitality so- and-so be referred to as one of the psyche dimensions in tourism, along with transfer of training, specialist shops and leisure activities.Unlike tourism, hospitality, however, serves both tourist and non-tourist needs. To heighten your understanding of the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry, complete operation 4. 4 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 4 The followers diagram deputes the relationship between the hospitality and tourism industry. Can you think of more services with examples to add to the diagram? Hospitality Industry Tourism Industry Hospitality Institutional/ Welfare Catering e. g. Hospital Catering Commercial Accommodation Services e. g. Hotels, Guest HousesTransportation services e. g. Car Rental, Airlines In Activity 4 we learned the hospitality industry is a part of a wider group of economic activities called tourism. In addition, not all hospitality businesses are profit-making business. In this Unit, we piss learned that there ar e two important business sectors in the hospitality industry ? Accommodation To provide adjustment (and usually food and drink) to people who for whatever savvy are away from home ? Food and drinkable To provide food and beverage to local, commuting, pass(a) customers and touristsThese two sectors go out be covered in more tip in Units 2 and 3 respectively. 5 Introduction to Hospitality 2 Accommodation Sector 2. 1 Introduction to the Accommodation Sector 2. 1. 1 Classification of Accommodation Establishment Guest elbow room There is no generic radiation diagram for classifying accommodation giving medications globally. One method is to divide accommodation into two main groups ? ? Non-commercial Commercial Accommodation Non-commercial Commercial Hotels Private e. g. Private Home Non-profit e. g. harbor Institutional e. g. University chassis 1 Accommodation social system 6 Introduction to HospitalityThe Hotel Proprietors Ordinance Chapter 158 provides a clear definition of a hotel Hotel means an establishment held out by the proprietor as oblation sleeping accommodation to any person presenting himself who come forths able and go forthing to pay a mediocre sum for the services and facilities provided and who is in a fit state to be legitimate. As Hotel is the predominant type of commercial accommodation in Hong Kong, we, therefore, will discuss in depth about how hotels can be classified. Hotels can be classified by ? Location e. g. metropolis revolve around hotels, suburban hotels, drome hotels and highway hotels/motels ? Function e. g. ommercial hotels and convention hotels ? Market segment e. g. resorts, wellness health clubs, timeshares/vacation ownership and casino hotels ? Distinctiveness of slip e. g. all-suite hotels, boutique hotels, ex die harded-stay hotels, past conversions and bed and eat inns ? Price and staff/room ratio ? size of it e. g. under 150 rooms, 151-300 rooms, 301-600 rooms, more than 600 rooms ? Rating (gradi ng) e. g. one-star to five-star or one-diamond to five-diamond In 2008, the Mobil Travel cast used its own rating system to give awards to some hotels in Hong Kong, Macau and Beijing. Below is an excerpt from the chase web touch ttp//stars. mobilinternationalratings. com/stars Mobil Travel Guide, now in its 51st year as one of the oldest and most respected inspection and ratings system in the world, is pleased to announce its 2009 Four- and Five-Star Winners. Representing a landmark in the companys history, 2009 is the first year that international cities have been rated and received Star Awards, and the winners from Beijing, Hong Kong, and Macau are intromitd. In November, Hong Kong and Macau were awarded with the most Mobil Five-Star rated hotels and spas for a given city in the history of the company. 7 Introduction to HospitalityACTIVITY 5 With the aid of the above web link, list the five-star hotels and spas in Hong Kong as awarded by the Mobil Travel Guide in November 20 08. ACTIVITY 6 The Hong Kong Tourism Board (HKTB) has developed its own hotel classification system. Look up the information from the PartnerNet website (http//partnernet. hktb. com/pnweb/jsp/comm/index. jsp) and answer the following questions a) How does HKTB fixate the hotels in Hong Kong? b) Does HKTB make public the listing of hotels by category? The following chart shows various types of accommodation used by travellers and their respective characteristics make up(s) urban center midsection hotels Characteristics These hotels are located within the heart of a city. The type may vary greatly from business, suites, residential, economy, mid-scale to luxury. local example ____________________ suburban hotels Suburban hotels tend to be little properties which usually provide full-service, and locate in suburban area. topical anaesthetic example ____________________ These hotels are designed especially to become air travellers. They offer a mix of facilities and comforts. Th e major(ip)ity offer guests transportation to and from the airdrome.Local example ____________________ airdrome hotels They are designed for overnight stays for car travellers, often with very Highway hotels/Motels basic facilities. The rooms usually have direct access to an open parking lot. They are often gauzyer than most hotels. They are located on the outskirts of towns and cities. Local example ____________________ traffic pattern hotels These hotels can have 2000 rooms or more. In addition to accommodation, they provide extensive meeting and function space for holding conventions. There are host areas within and around the hotel complex.Most of them provide an in-house laundry, a business centre, airport shuttle service, and 24-hour room service. They are often in close proximity to convention centres and other convention hotels. Local example ____________________ 8 Introduction to Hospitality Commercial They are located in downtown areas. They tend to be smaller than convention hotels. Meeting and function space are smaller, and there hotels are fewer banquet areas. Local example ____________________ Resort hotels These hotels are located in picturesque, sometimes remote settings. Guests travel long distance to resorts. Usually, they tend to stay longer.Resorts typically provide a wide array of recreational amenities, as well as a garland of food & beverage outlets ranging from informal to fine-dining restaurants. Local example ____________________ Spa hotels They are located in resort-type settings or as part of city spa hotels. They provide accommodations, spa treatments, programs and cuisine. Programs offered vary widely. They may include relaxation/ essay management, fitness, weight management, grief/life change and pilates/yoga. Spas have professional staff that often include dieticians, therapists, masseurs, exercise physiologists, and in some cases, physicians.Local example ____________________ clippingshares/ This is a type of shared ownership where a buyer purchases the right to use the property for a portion of each year. In many cases, when the vacation timeshare is purchased, the buyer receives a deed. This indicates that ownership the buyer can use the property each year at the time specified for the number of long time based on the deed and the purchase can be turn over down to the buyers heirs. Local example ____________________ Casino hotels They have gambling operations which are the major revenue centres. They also provide live entertainment.A wide variety of luxury amenities, hotel services including fine and day-by-day dining and shopping centres are typically available on site. Local example ____________________ All-suite hotels The guest rooms in these hotels are crowingr than median(prenominal) hotel rooms, with separate areas for working, sleeping and relaxing. A living area or living room is typically separated from the bedroom, and some properties offer a kitchen set-up in the rooms. The a menities and services can vary widely. They can be gear up in various locations much(prenominal) as urban, suburban, or residential. Local example ____________________ 9 Introduction to Hospitality Boutique otels Boutique hotels differentiate themselves from traditional hotels and motels by providing personalized accommodation and services/facilities. They are sometimes known as design hotels or lifestyle hotels. The price varies greatly. They are very different in their look and feel from traditional lodging properties. They are more intimate, and, perhaps, more luxurious, and stand out as an individual. The amenities vary greatly depending on what the hotels environment and theme chosen. For example, a boutique hotel may not offer Wi-Fi Internet, air conditioning, or cable/pay TV if it is focus on comfort and solitude.Local example ____________________ Extendedstay hotels/ Serviced Apartments These properties cater to guests who stay for an leng soed period. They usually offer f ull kitchen facilities, shopping services, business services and expressage housekeeping services. Local example ____________________ Historic conversion hotels These properties have historic significance. They have been converted into lodging establishments with retention of their historic character. Local example ____________________ They are usually family-owned. They are private homes whose owner Bed and ives on or near the premises and rents out rooms to overnight guests. breakfast inns (B) The paid accommodation typically includes breakfast. A popular term is B (i. e. bed and breakfast provided). The host often provides guests with aid regarding directions, and information regarding the local area including rubber-necking suggestions. It is usually located in rural areas and villages. Local example ____________________ Guest houses Guest houses are similar to bed and breakfast inns. They range from low-budget rooms to luxury apartments. They tend to be like small hotels in bi gger cities.Though the facilities are limited, most rooms are air-conditioned with en-suite shower and toilet. Local example ____________________ Hostels They are very bargain-priced accommodation. The sleeping arrangements are usually in dormitory style and there may also be self-catering facilities on site. Local example ____________________ They are bedrooms on a ship or train for passengers. Local example ____________________ Villas/Chalet They are self-catering accommodation in a private bungalow, usually rented to prestigious or renowned guests. In many cases, it refers to a s (usually small cottage with an overhanging roof in a seaside resort, e. . beach found in houses. skiing and Local example ____________________ beach resorts) Cabins 10 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 7 Based on the characteristics of various types of accommodation listed above, browse the website and fill in a local example. In Activity 7 we learned that a hotel may fall under more than one classi fication. For example, The Landmark Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong is a luxury city centre and spa hotel. In addition, different types of hotel will offer different kinds of products and services for their guests and will be run differently to meet their guests needs.A luxury hotel may provide more personalised services and facilities that may not appear in a limited-service hotel. Examples include high- run broadband Internet access, liquid crystal display televisions, DVD/CD home entertainment sound systems, 24-hour butler service and in-room dining, and 24-hour concierge and business services. 11 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2 Introduction to the Hotel Operations Hotel swimming pool Hotel fitness centre 2. 2. 1 Hotel Ownership other way to classify hotels is by their ownership, which can be ? Private An self-employed person hotel owned by a person/partnership/private company e. . Shamrock Hotel ? Local group Several hotels owned by a local company e. g. suck Grand Hong Kong, T he Kowloon Hotel, think of heart Hong Kong, Harbour Plaza Metropolis, Harbour Plaza North Point and Harbour Plaza Resort City are all owned by Harbour Plaza Hotels & Resorts ? International group A hotel which is part of an international drawstring of hotels e. g. JW Marriott Hotel Hong Kong is part of the Marriott International, Inc. 12 Introduction to Hospitality Hotel management Hotels can be operated in one of the following ways ? Independently owned and operatedThese can be independent hotels, with no affiliation, that are being managed by the owners of the properties. ? eradicatement bargain Management contracts are hotel management companies which operate properties owned by other entities. In some cases, the hotel owners may arrange to run their properties through a management contract with a company that specialises in managing hotels. The reason for this is that the owner may not Have the necessary expertise bank to become involved in the operation of the hotel Be nefits for the hotel management company diminished or no up- await financing or equity involved Manage the property for the contract period much(prenominal) as five, ten or twenty years Receive a management fee during the contract period ? Franchising Some investors prefer to use the franchising concept in runway the hotel. Franchising in the hospitality industry is a concept that Allows interested investors to use a companys (the franchisor) name and business format Is do up of properties where the immunityes agree to run the hotel in accordance with the strict guidelines set by the franchisor Allows a company to expand more rapidly by victimisation others capital Benefits for the franchisee Obtain from the franchisor the expertise in doing business much(prenominal) as site selection, planning, pre-opening training, operations manuals, information management, central qualification system, field of battle support, quality program line, purchasing, advertising, grocer ying, new products and concepts The franchisee has complete control and responsibility over the fooling operation of the property In return, the franchisor receives a joining fee and an current fee from the franchisee. 13 Introduction to Hospitality ? Referrals Referral associations, e. g. Leading Hotels of the World (LHW), offer to hotels similar benefits as franchising, but at a lower cost.Some hotels conduct to become a referral property. This means that the property is being operated as an independent hotel in association with a trustworthy chain. These hotels refer guests to one anothers properties and share a centralised taciturnity system, a communal logo, image, or advertising slogan. Hotels pay an initial fee to join a referral association and further fees are based on services postulate. As the property has already been physically developed, the owner may want assistance only with marketing, advertising, management, or taciturnity referral.In addition, guests may find more diversity among the referral properties as size and appearance standards are less stringent than those in a franchise agreement. However, every hotel is assessed and checked regularly to tell that it maintains the highest standards. ACTIVITY 8 State two drawbacks for a franchisee joining a franchise company. ACTIVITY 9 Browse the website and find out two international hotel chains that provide management contract and franchising services to the hotel owners. 14 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2. 2 The Functions and Departments of a HotelThe day-to-day operations of a hotel are the key factors determining the success or failure of its service. It is necessary to understand the structure of hotels in order to get an overview of how the organisation fits together. General omnibus nonmigratory Manager Rooms Division aiming Security Human Resources Food & Beverage Sales & Marketing Accounts get into 2 major parts of a five-star hotel Regardless of the size of a hotel, th e organisational structure will be basically the same. It is usually divided into several distinct divisions, each liable for a particular area of work.The larger the hotel is and the more facilities it offered, the more work the departments become. For example, the expect authorisation and housekeeping department are under the control of the director of rooms. The duties of key executives 1. General Manager The main responsibilities of the general manager (GM) include ? Providing leadership to the management team ? Coordinating the work of all departments ? Participating in the formulation of hotel policies and strategies ? Leading the hotel staff in meeting the fiscal, environmental and community responsibilities presume full responsibilities for the overall performance of the hotel 2. Resident Manager The main responsibilities of the resident manager include ? Holding a major responsibility in developing and executing plans developed by the owner(s), the general manager and other members of the management team ? Checking on operations, providing feedback and offering assistance when needed ? Completing, reviewing and summarizing statistical newspapers and sharing them with the general manager ? Assuming responsibilities for the daily operations and management of the hotel 5 Introduction to Hospitality Functions of major hotel departments 1. Engineering The engineering department is trustworthy for maintaining the physical plant of the hotel such as electricity, plumbing, air conditioning, heating and elevator systems and for overseeing all mechanical and good conditions of the hotel. 2. Security Security is an important concern in every hotel. The pledge department is responsible for implementing procedures which aim at protecting the safety and credentials of hotel guests, visitors, hotel employees and the hotel itself.Examples include monitoring surveillance equipments, patrolling the hotel premises and maintaining security alarm systems. 3. Hu man Resources The human resources (personnel and training) department is responsible for hiring, orientation, training, wages and benefit administration, labour relations, employee relations, and staff development. 4. Food and Beverage The food and beverage (F) department provides food and beverage services to the hotel guests and visitors through a variety of outlets and facilities/services.Examples include lounge, bar, coffee shop, restaurants, banquet service, room service (also called in-room dining) and cake shop. 5. Sales and Marketing The main functions of the gross revenue and marketing department involve generating new businesses for the hotel, coordinating advertising, as well as deals promotions and public relations activities aiming at enhancing the hotels image. 6. Accounts The account statements department is headed by the financial controller who, as a key member of the management team, can guide the hotel to an increasing profitability through erupt control and as set management.In addition, this department is responsible for monitoring all of the financial activities of a hotel. Examples include overseeing accounts receivable, accounts payable, payroll, and cost control systems of the hotel keeping records of assets, liabilities and financial performance of the hotel preparing the monthly profit-and-loss statement, coordinating with purchasing department and information technology department, and discourse guests inquiries about quantitying. The functions of Rooms Division will be covered in detail in Unit 2. 2. 3. ACTIVITY 10Browse the website and find a five-star hotel in Hong Kong/Macau that has a video in English and Chinese promoting its services and facilities to the guests. 16 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2. 3 Introduction to the Rooms Division Rooms Division scarecrow Office Department Housekeeping Department type 3 Organisation of the rooms grade The main source of income for most hotels comes from the rooms division and the food and beverage department. In general, the rooms division comprises two major departments, the front line and housekeeping, which are involved in the sales or services of rooms to guests.The director of rooms is responsible to the general manager for the effective leadership and smooth operation of all departments that make up the rooms division. Front desk counter 2. 2. 4 Front Office Operations The front office is the nerve centre or hub of a hotel. It is the department that makes the first and last impression on the guests, and the model that guests approach for information and service throughout their stays. 17 Introduction to Hospitality Front desk clerk The three main functions of the front office are as follows 1. Selling rooms 2.Maintaining balanced guest accounts 3. Providing services and information to guests 2. 2. 4. 1Guest Cycle The operation of the front office department is mainly unyielding by the type and number of guest transactions which take place during th e four different phases of the guest cycle as shown in Figure 4 and listed below ? Pre-arrival The stage where the guest makes room reticence. ? arriver The point when the guest arrives at the hotel. ? Occupancy The period during which the guest stays in the hotel. ? Departure The point when the guest checks out and leaves the hotel. 8 Introduction to Hospitality Figure 4 The guest cycle Complete Activity 11 to enhance your understanding of the various types of transactions and services which may make pass between the guest and the hotel during different phases of the guest cycle. 19 Introduction to Hospitality ACTIVITY 11 Determine at which stage(s) of the guest cycle the following guest transaction or service could occur. a) Fill in the resolvent column below with the correct alphabet (A-D) which denotes the four different stages of the guest cycle. A Pre-arrival B Arrival C OccupancyD Departure The first one has been done as an example for you. No. Guest Transaction or Se rvice Answer(s) 1. Reservation A 2. Mail and information 3. Transportation 4. mobilize call and sum 5. Check-in and fitting 6. Flight confirmation 7. Room assignment 8. Safe deposit 9. Issuing of key 10. luggage intervention 11. Maintaining guest account 12. Bill settlement 13. Issuing of breakfast coupon 14. Currency exchange 15. Wake-up call 16. Check-out 17. Booking of theatre ticket 20 Introduction to Hospitality b) When you complete studying this section 2. 2. Front Office Operations, try this activity again by filling in your answers using the guest cycle provided below. In Activity 11, we have learned that different types of guest transactions and services could occur in the four different phases of the guest cycle which are being handled mainly by the front office department. The following will explain how different sections of the front office department are being organised to handle these guest transactions. 21 Introduction to Hospitality 2. 2. 4. 2 Front Office Dep artment Front Office Manager Assistant Front OfficeManager Assistant Manager predict Services Manager Reservations Manager Front Desk Manager Guest Relations Telephone executive program Reservations Supervisor Front Desk Supervisor Telephone floozy Reservations Clerk Front Desk Clerk Chief Concierge Baggage Supervisor Baggage penetrationman Executive Floor Manager Senior Airport lesson Executive Floor/Business Centre Airport exemplification access Attendant Parking Parking Attendant/Driver Attendant Figure 5 Front office organisation chart of a large hotel Figure 5 shows an organizational chart for a front office.This illustrates the structure and lines of communication which operate within the front office. The front office department is headed by the front office manager (FOM) whose main duty is to enhance guest services by constantly developing services to meet guests needs. The FOM performs the following duties ? Monitoring reservation status ? Looking over market mix an d preparing occupancy forecasts ? Determining rate structures and supervising implementation of rate policies ? Reviewing previous nights occupancy and average room rate ? Reviewing arrivals and departures for the day and the coterminous day ?Making staffing adjustments needed for arrivals and departures ? Reviewing the dignitary list, checking VIP rooms, meeting VIPs and entertaining them 22 Introduction to Hospitality (1) Telephone The call in department is headed by the knell services manager. The resound executive program and mobilize operator process all incoming and outgoing calls through the hotel switchboard. Staff in this department generally possesses good language and communication skills. The members need to ? Provide general information regarding the hotel or local attractions to guests over the telephone Place international calls, morning calls and wake-up calls as required by guests ? carry on the paging system of the hotel, which provides a communication serv ice between certain hotel staff and management staff who are not always in their offices ? Administer the in-room movie system of the hotel ? Stay familiar with the names of in truth Important Persons (VIPs) in the hotel ? Protect guest privacy by not disclosing room number, guest information and reporting suspicious person ? hand weather emergency to management, engineering, security and guests ?Perform the role of communications centre in the pillow slip of emergency In order to provide give service, some hotels have introduced the one-stop service with all guest quests being carried out through the telephone department. For example, if a guest called in and wanted to place a booking with the coffee shop, the line would be transferred by the telephone operator to the coffee shop in the past. With the one stop service, the telephone operator will take the booking for the guest. This can speed up the booking process and leave the guest a relegate impression. 2) Reservations The reservations manager takes charge of this section and makes decisions on whether room reservations/bookings should be evaluate when the hotel is fully booked. That is, to stop taking room reservations or to allow overbooking of rooms. The reservations supervisor will monitor closely all the room reservations taken and report to the reservations manager when abnormal situations happen. For example, there is a larger number of room cancellations than usual. The reservations clerk will ? Handle reservation request and prepare reservation confirmation slips ?Request guests to confirm or guarantee their room reservations ? backup records of the details of each reservation and the number of room reservation taken for each night ? Provide the front desk with details of room reservation due to arrive the next day ? Prepare VIP lists ? update guest history records Reservations may originate from different sources ? Direct reservation via telephone, fax, letter, e-mail or Internet ? Reser vation network systems such as Leading Hotels of the World (LHW) ? Travel agents ? Tour operators ? Meeting planners ? Walk-in 23 Introduction to HospitalityWhen a reservation request is accepted, the details of the room reservation such as guest name(s), staying period, room type and rate, method of payment, guest contact information and special requests will be recorded on a reservation form, as shown in figure 6, and in the computer. It is park practice for hotels to overbook during peak season in order to ensure full occupancy as some guests are likely not to show up. Overbooking refers to a situation when the hotel takes more reservations than the number of its rooms to accommodate. Therefore, reservations clerk will request guests to guarantee their booking during peak season.For guaranteed reservation, hotel will hold the room for the guest overnight or during the guaranteed period as the guest has prepay for the room and no refund will be given if the guest does not show u p. By contrast, a non-guaranteed reservation means that the hotel will hold the room until a stated cancellation time, normally up to 6 p. m. on the arrival date and then release the room for sale if the guest does not arrive. 24 Introduction to Hospitality RESERVATION sort ________ ____________________ Title ___________________ Surname First denomination __________________ Second Name Arrival fitting Departure Date Flight/TimeFlight/Time No. of Persons No. of Rooms/Room Type Room dictate _____________________________________ Corporate give the sack Travel Agent Airline Discount Discount Courtesy Package Discount Transportation Required Airport to Hotel Hotel to Airport Round Trip Billing Instruction Guest A/C Room on Company All Expenses on Company opposite __________________ Guaranteed By Company letter/fax/e-mail Fax stick Credit Card No. ________________________________ Expiry Date ____________ Company Name Telephone/Fax no. Reserved by E-mail scream Confirmation Yes/N o Remarks Approved by Taken by Date Figure 6Reservation form 25 Introduction to Hospitality (3) Concierge The concierge comprises of a large group of uniformed staff, including ? Chief Concierge ? Airport exemplification ? Driver ? Parking Attendant ? Door Attendant ? Baggage doorkeeper ? Baggage Supervisor The chief concierge is the overall in charge of this section. He/she normally works at a desk in the main foyer. The following guest services are provided by the concierge ? Providing information/advice on hotel products/services, entertainment, attractions, sightseeing tours and local restaurants ? Confirming airline passages and purchasing airline tickets Reserving tables at restaurants and tickets to shows ? written text the hire of hotel limousine and other transportation service such as a private jet ? treatment guest requests and inquiries, e. g. shopping request and an inquiry concerning the direction to a local bank Airport Representative Duties include ? accost hotel guests at the airport ? Arranging hotel transportation for guests from the airport to the hotel ? Answering inquiries from guests about the different means of transportation available from the airport to the hotel such as airport express train, airport shuttle and bus ?Taking hotel room bookings ? Assisting departing guests at the airport ? Liaising with airlines for special arrangements such as wheelchair for guests and the handling of guest baggage lost by the airlines Driver Duties include ? Taking guests to and from the airport ? Acting as personal driver for guest upon request such as taking guest to his office or for sightseeing tour Parking Attendant Duties include ? Parking cars for guests wicked the hotel ? Assisting the door attendant in ensuring that traffic at the main grab is smooth 26 Introduction to Hospitality Door Attendant Duties include Greeting all new arrivals ? Providing door service to guests ? Summoning baggage porter to assist arriving guests ? Calling t ravels and providing the hotel address identity card for guests ? Paying taxi fare on behalf of the hotel guests who do not have local currencies ? direct traffic and parking of vehicles at the main entrance In general, the door attendant works outside the hotels entrance. Hotel entrance Baggage Porter (Bell Attendant) Duties include ? Handling guest baggage in and out of the hotel ? Escorting sign in guests from the front desk to their rooms and introducing facilities in the room Running errands for the executive office and hotel guests such as going to the post office buying stamps/ displace parcels, doing grocery shopping and obtaining visa to China for guests ? Delivering to guest room newspapers, mail, fax, message and parcel, etc ? Handling storage of guest baggage/belongings for late check-out, next arrival or outsiders to pick up Baggage Supervisor (Bell Captain) Duties include ? Answering telephone calls from guests regarding luggage pick up from room ? assignment bagga ge porter to handle the guest baggage ?Receiving guest article, such as a tailor-made shirt from outsider, and assigning a baggage porter to deliver it to the guest room ? Handling guest requests for postal services such as collecting the postage fee of send a parcel from the guest 27 Introduction to Hospitality (4) Front Desk (Reception) The front desk is headed by the front desk manager whose main duty is to ensure that the hotel achieves the highest possible level of room occupancy and the maximum revenue. Front Desk Supervisor (Reception Supervisor) Duties include ? Overseeing the smooth running of the front desk ? Compiling duty curlicue Greeting important guests (VIPs) ? Assigning rooms to guests ? Dealing with group arrivals ? Handling guest requests such as room change and complaints not being able to be handled by subordinates Front Desk Clerk (Receptionist) Duties include ? Greeting the guest ? Providing information and promoting hotel facilities and services to guests ? Checking in the guest ? Maintaining guest account ? Checking out the guest ? Administering the safe deposit system of the hotel ? Providing foreign currency exchange service to guest Registration (Check-in) The purposes of adaption include the following Recording the arrival of guest ? Confirming the personal details of guest ? Satisfying legal requirements Stages of registration ? Preparing for guest arrival such as check for arrivals with special requests ? Greeting the guest ? Determining the room rate and assigning room ? Assisting guest to complete the registration form ? Checking guests method of payment ? Handing over mail, message, article received before guest arrival and breakfast coupon (if applicable) to guest ? Issuing room key to guest ? Escorting guest to the room and introducing room facilities as required by individual hotelFigure 7 shows the sample of a completed registration form. During the process of registration, the front desk clerk will request to see the g uests identity card or passport to check if the guest is an alien, for verification purpose. When all formalities are completed, the front desk clerk will issue the room key to the guest. The baggage porter will then take the guests baggage and escort the guest to the guest room. 28 Introduction to Hospitality Guests who arrive at the hotel without having made a reservation are known as enters. It is common practice for hotel staff to obtain from the guest a ubstantial deposit or credit card imprint before checking the guest into the hotel. ACTIVITY 12 Mr Christie, a walk-in guest, will stay in your hotel for one night only and will be fully responsible for all charges incurred. As a front desk clerk, how would you explain to the guest that you have to collect one night room rate (HK$2,000. 00) + 10% service charge + prevailing government room tax (e. g. 3%) + an extra HK$ 1,000. 00 for hotel signing privileges from him as the deposit for sign in? 29 Introduction to Hospitality Re gistration Form Guest Name Welcome to Parkside HotelMr. Brent David Ritchie Number 8200 River Road Date of Birth 11 Oct 77 Nationality Canadian Passport No. Address Room 1718 JP089556 capital of Virginia BC Canada V6X 3P8 Tel/Fax No. E-mail Address emailprotected com Destination Engineer Arrival Date 12 Sep 07 Flight/Time billet Next CX839/2055 Company Name Canada Departure 14 Sep 07 Date CX838/1635 Flight/Time Room Type Deluxe Suite No. of Nights 2 Room score $2300 (HKD) No. of Guests 1/0 Room rate is subject to 10% (Adult/Child) Service Charge & 3% Government Tax Payment order VISA MASTER CUP AMEX CASH JCBDINERS OTHERS ____________________ Guest hint Brent D. Ritchie I understand that the guest signature on the registration form is authorized for use of the credit card on the show for payment of my account for this and future stays. I agree that my liability for this bill is not waived, and agree to be held personally liable in the event that the indicated person, company, or other third party billed fails to pay part or all of these charges. excerpt Check Out Service I hereby authorize Parkside Hotel to charge my credit card for all expenses pertaining to my stay. *Express