Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Marketing management Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 2

Marketing management - Essay Example They have specialty outlets to cater to niche segments of high spenders as well as sports lovers. One such company is Black’s Leisure Group plc (Blacks) whose principal activity is outdoor and boardwear retailing. The Group operates through two retail chains of stores called Outdoor and ONeill. The core activities of Outdoor comprise of outdoor and boardwear clothing, footwear and equipment, while ONeill functions as a distributor and retailer of ONeill products in UK. In 12 months ending March 2007On sales of  £ 298.276m it suffered a loss of  £ 12.353m. This has improved somewhat for the next 6 month period in current year by September end with sales at  £146.8m with profits at  £0.2m. This cannot be considered final as the annual set offs like depreciation and reserves can only be calculated at the end of the year. Blacks have also closed down 7 loss making stores out of 45 planned for closure. It also continues to face tough competition from top 4 competitors. The overall market of sportswear is certainly increasing but the prices are under pressure due to customer resistance and high degree of competition. The fact is both external environments affect the competitive advantage of companies and therefore the PEST analysis helps the management to deal with situations and formulate strategic policies to overcome, circumvent or even take advantage of these factors. PEST stands for Political, Economical, Socio-Cultural and Technological factors. As they are all external, the company can at best try to strategize to tune itself in accordance with them for survival, sustenance and indeed for growth. Economical factors cover Development of relevant economic indicators, Business cycles, Unemployment and Industry structures. The economic indicators show growth in the UK economy with controlled inflation at around 3%. The economy has experienced an unusually long period

Monday, October 28, 2019

Law Revision Kit Certified Public Accountants Essay Example for Free

Law Revision Kit Certified Public Accountants Essay ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. This publication may not be lent, resold, hired or otherwise disposed of by any way of trade without the prior written consent of the copyright owner. Â © THE REGISTERED TRUSTEES STRATHMORE EDUCATION TRUST 1992 INSTRUCTIONS FOR STUDENTS This study guide is intended to assist Distance Learning students in their independent studies. The course has been broken down into eight lessons each of which should be considered as approximately one week of study for a full time student. Solve the reinforcement problems verifying your answer with the suggested solution contained at the back of the distance learning pack. When the lesson is completed, repeat the same procedure for each of the following lessons. At the end of lessons 2, 4, 6 and 8 there is a comprehensive assignment that you should complete and submit for marking to the Distance Learning administrator. SUBMISSION PROCEDURE 1.After you have completed a comprehensive assignment clearly identify each question and number your pages. 2.If you do not understand a portion of the course content or an assignment question indicate this in your answer so that your marker can respond to your problem areas. Be as specific as possible. 3.Arrange the order of your pages by question number and fix them securely to the data sheet provided. Adequate postage must be affixed to the envelope. 4.While waiting for your assignment to be marked and returned to you, continue to work through the next two lessons and the corresponding reinforcement problems and comprehensive assignment. On the completion of the last comprehensive assignment, a two-week period of revision should be carried out of the whole course using the material in the revision section of the study pack. At the completion of this period, the final Mock Examination paper should be completed under examination conditions. This should be sent to the Distance Learning Administrator to arrive in Nairobi at least five weeks before the date of your sitting the KASNEB Examinations. This paper will be marked and posted back to you within two weeks of receipt by the Distance Learning Administrator. ACKNOWLEDGMENT We gratefully acknowledge permission to quote from the past examination papers of the following bodies: Kenya Accountants and Secretaries National Examination Board (KASNEB); Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA); Chartered Association of Certified Accountants (ACCA).

Saturday, October 26, 2019

A Man For All Seasons Essays -- essays research papers

The 16th century was a time of political upheaval, a time of conflict and corruption †¦ and a time of heroes? All these elements are visibly present in Bolt’s book, A Man for All Seasons. As I was reading this story I was thinking that it could probably apply to our day and age but that begged the question. Why did Robert Bolt decide to use a 16th century character rather than a present time period character and setting? I believe that Bolt chose this man and his era because there things that he liked abut the man, there was no shortage of conflict and the he was worthy of being a hero. He fits into one of the archetype heroes. These three things I will touch upon in my seminar and I hope that my ideas will prove to be informative and enlightening.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  One of the main reasons that Robert Bolt probably chose 16th century Thomas More as his hero for A Man for all Seasons was that he liked his personality. By that I mean that as Bolt wrote about More, he discovered more and more things that he found admirable about the man. At the outset, Robert Bolt was looking for a person who had a strong idea of who he is because this is what Bolt thinks is necessary to be a hero and this is exactly the type of man that Thomas More is. More saw in himself something that was his only and he was that it was something that allowed him to live life with confidence in himself. Only when he was denied that way of life was he able to accept his fate of death. Robert Bolt comments on this on page 13 of the preface. â€Å"†¦who nevertheless found something in himself without which life was valueless and when that was denied him, he was able to grasp his death.† This shows that Thomas knew that he had a sense of identity that no one else and he knew how important it was.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  After Robert Bolt selected this man, he began to write and realised many more things about Thomas More, which had drawn him to the 16th century character. One of the things that Bolt found out was More’s sense of self. He remarks on this on page 12 of the preface. â€Å"At any rate, Thomas More, as I wrote about him, became for me a man with an adamantine sense of his own self.† Robert Bolt went back to this era long past because of that trait but it was as he wrote about him that he discovered just how strong his sense of identity was.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  B... ...e me, Alice, that in silence is my safety under the law, but my silence must be absolute, it must extend to you.† (P56) He has found that so long he doesn’t give any indication to his opinion, hey cannot do anything to him legally. â€Å"MORE: There’ll be no trial, they have no case.† (P85) When he is asking his family to leave the country, he knows that he has protected himself to the best of his abilities. He should be safe except for the fact that he is dealing with a corrupt King who considers himself above the law.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Is there any way to do a play such as this in the 20th century? Evidently, Robert Bolt thought not and after analysing the story further, I have come to realise that he is right. The elements of the story, which were present in the 16th century, are not present in the 20th. There also may have been no one in this century that Robert Bolt liked enough and with the right characteristics. And of course, there is not enough conflict for one man to face as there was in that time. I believe that there are men (And women.) who would be able to face the problems that Thomas More had to face but we can all be thankful that there is no need for it.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Themes Of Change :: essays research papers

Themes of Change   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When you are born people are there to take care of you, love you, and guide you through life. As you grow up and life changes, you must take charge of your own life and not become so dependent on others. Throughout the course of life a person will encounter many changes, whether good or bad. In 'A&P';, 'The Secret Lion';, and 'A Rose for Emily';, the main characters in the stories are Sammy, the boys, and Miss Emily who face changes during their lives. All of these characters are in need of change. Because of their need for change, their lives will become much better. They are filled with wonder and awe about the world around them. No matter what type of person, everyone will encounter changes. It is part of the natural process. A person is encouraged to make these changes for the good. Sammy, the boys, and Miss Emily all encounter changes in their lives that fulfill their need to become something different.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 'A&P'; by John Updike a young cashier named Sammy is very confused about the concept of life. In the beginning of the story Sammy is very passive and ignorant about life. His passiveness and ignorance are brought upon by his mother sheltering him during most of his life. Sammy compares himself to another cashier who works at the A&P, Stokesie. Stokesie is twenty-two and Sammy is nineteen. Sammy sees a reflection of himself when he looks at Stokesie because of his lack of ambition and wanting to become nothing more than a manager of the store. When Queeny comes into the store, showing all of her leadership abilities, he sees the total opposite of himself. Queeny is like a shepherd leading a flock of sheep; she is in control. Sammy recognizes Queeny's headstrong attitude and he admires it very much. Queeny is just how Sammy would like to be, a headstrong person, a leader, and a person with ambition. After the conflict at the register with Queeny and the manager, Sammy decides to take charge of his life and do something for himself. Because of Sammy's huge change, he is no longer passive and ignorant. He is now active and realistic toward the world and its changes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 'The Secret Lion'; by Alberto Alvero Rios, the young boys are filled with wonder and fascination about the world. Throughout this story everything in these boys' lives changes.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Ethical issues in international business Essay

When we pay a large tip to secure a specific table in a restaurant. There is usually some personal happiness-related reason behind our action. Among many of our reasons could be that we want to be nearer to performers on the stage in order for us to secure a better view for our enjoyment. Another reason could be that we want to have a specific view available for us while we dine. If we do not pay a large tip, then there is a bigger risk that we would not get the table that we want. Therefore paying the large tip reduced that risk significantly and makes us likely to get what we want. This case is the same as when a business company pays a bride to certain entities in order to secure a contract. When perceived in Bentham’s perspective, â€Å"happiness† to a business may be equated to progress and profit which in turn may be acquired through appropriate business actions such as securing profitable contracts. The company pays a certain amount in order to get more business which will eventually pay back several fold. This is exactly the utilitarian principle that Bentham explained which may be neatly applied to both cases. In the restaurant, the customer pays a larger tip in order to enjoy the â€Å"happiness† of a specific table. In business, the company pays a bribe in order to enjoy the â€Å"happiness† of obtaining a contract. Although one of the two situations is illegal, that does not mean that the principle between the two situations are different. In as much as companies are not allowed by law to make bribes for contracts, slipping a $50 for a waiter to secure a seat often happens without the knowledge of the waiter’s supervisor. In that sense we may see that both actions to have moral repercussions. It is just that one tends to be more pronounced with respect to its consequences than the other.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

The Complete IB Physics Syllabus SL and HL

The Complete IB Physics Syllabus SL and HL SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips I took IB Physics HL back in my high school days. It is still probably the most challenging class I have ever taken (even including my college courses), but I got a 6 on the exam, so trust me- it's doable. In this article, I'll discuss all the topics covered in IB Physics Standard Level and IB Physics Higher Level, the number of hours dedicated to each topic, and what IB expects you to know for each topic. IB Physics SL and HL Core Both IB Physics SL and HL consist of the same core requirements that consist of the same number of hours. Both classes will cover the same 8 topics (requiring 95 teaching hours) in the order listed below with the same subtopics listed below: Topic #1: Measurements and Uncertainties- 5 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Measurements in physics 1.1 Fundamental and derived SI units Scientific notation and metric multipliers Significant figures Orders of magnitude Estimation Uncertainties and errors 1.2 Random and systematic errors Absolute, fractional and percentage uncertainties Error bars Uncertainty of gradient and intercepts Vectors and scalars 1.3 Vector and scalar quantities Combination and resolution of vectors Topic #2: Mechanics- 22 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Motion 2.1 Distance and displacement Speed and velocity Acceleration Graphs describing motion Equations of motion for uniform acceleration Projectile motion Fluid resistance and terminal speed Forces 2.2 Objects as point particles Free-body diagrams Translational equilibrium Newton’s laws of motion Solid friction Work, energy and power 2.3 Kinetic energy Gravitational potential energy Elastic potential energy Work done as energy transfer Power as rate of energy transfer Principle of conservation of energy Efficiency Momentum and impulse 2.4 Newton’s second law expressed in terms of rate of change of momentum Impulse and force–time graphs Conservation of linear momentum Elastic collisions, inelastic collisions and explosions Topic #3: Thermal Physics- 11 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Thermal concepts 3.1 Molecular theory of solids, liquids and gases Temperature and absolute temperature Internal energy Specific heat capacity Phase change Specific latent heat Modelling a gas 3.2 Pressure Equation of state for an ideal gas Kinetic model of an ideal gas Mole, molar mass and the Avogadro constant Differences between real and ideal gases Topic #4: Waves- 15 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Oscillations 4.1 Simple harmonic oscillations Time period, frequency, amplitude, displacement and phase difference Conditions for simple harmonic motion Travelling waves 4.2 Travelling waves Wavelength, frequency, period and wave speed Transverse and longitudinal waves The nature of electromagnetic waves The nature of sound waves Wave characteristics 4.3 Wavefronts and rays Amplitude and intensity Superposition Polarization Wave behaviour 4.4 Reflection and refraction Snell’s law, critical angle and total internal reflection Diffraction through a single-slit and around objects Interference patterns Double-slit interference Path difference Standing waves 4.5 The nature of standing waves Boundary conditions Nodes and antinodes Topic #5: Electricity and Magnetism- 15 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Electric fields 5.1 Charge Electric field Coulomb’s law Electric current Direct current (dc) Potential difference Heating effect of electric currents 5.2 Circuit diagrams Kirchhoff’s circuit laws Heating effect of current and its consequences Resistance expressed as R = V/I Ohm’s law Resistivity Power dissipation Electric cells 5.3 Cells Internal resistance Secondary cells Terminal potential difference Electromotive force (emf) Magnetic effects of electric currents 5.4 Magnetic fields Magnetic force Topic #6: Circular Motion and Gravitation- 5 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Circular motion 6.1 Period, frequency, angular displacement and angular velocity Centripetal force Centripetal acceleration Newton’s law of gravitation 6.2 Newton’s law of gravitation Gravitational field strength Topic #7: Atomic, Nuclear and Particle Physics- 14 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Discrete energy and radioactivity 7.1 Discrete energy and discrete energy levels Transitions between energy levels Radioactive decay Fundamental forces and their properties Alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays Half-life Absorption characteristics of decay particles Isotopes Background radiation Nuclear reactions 7.2 The unified atomic mass unit Mass defect and nuclear binding energy Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion The structure of matter 7.3 Quarks, leptons and their antiparticles Hadrons, baryons and mesons The conservation laws of charge, baryon number, lepton number and strangeness The nature and range of the strong nuclear force, weak nuclear force and electromagnetic force Exchange particles Feynman diagrams Confinement The Higgs boson Topic #8: Energy Production- 8 Hours for Both SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Energy sources 8.1 Specific energy and energy density of fuel sources Sankey diagrams Primary energy sources Electricity as a secondary and versatile form of energy Renewable and non-renewable energy sources Thermal energy transfer 8.2 Conduction, convection and thermal radiation Black-body radiation Albedo and emissivity The solar constant The greenhouse effect Energy balance in the Earth surface–atmosphere system Bonus: Want to get a perfect SAT or ACT score? Read our famous guide on how to score a perfect 1600 on the SAT, or a perfect 36 on the ACT. You'll learn top strategies from the country's leading expert on the SAT/ACT, Allen Cheng, a Harvard grad and perfect scorer. No matter your level, you'll find useful advice here- this strategy guide has been read by over 500,000 people. Read the 1600 SAT guide or 36 ACT guide today and start improving your score. Additional Higher Level Topics These 4 topics are only for IB Physics Higher Level students- 60 hours total for HL only Topic #9: Wave Phenomena- 17 Hours for HL Only Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Simple harmonic motion (HL ONLY) 9.1 The defining equation of SHM Energy changes Single-slit diffraction (HL ONLY) 9.2 The nature of single-slit diffraction Interference (HL ONLY) 9.3 Young’s double-slit experiment Modulation of two-slit interference pattern by one-slit diffraction effect Multiple slit and diffraction grating interference patterns Thin film interference Resolution (HL ONLY) 9.4 The size of a diffracting aperture The resolution of simple monochromatic two-source systems Doppler effect (HL ONLY) 9.5 The Doppler effect for sound waves and light waves Topic #10: Fields- 11 Hours for HL only Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Describing fields (HL ONLY) 10.1 Gravitational fields Electrostatic fields Electric potential and gravitational potential Field lines Equipotential surfaces Fields at work (HL ONLY) 10.2 Potential and potential energy Potential gradient Potential difference Escape speed Orbital motion, orbital speed and orbital energy Forces and inverse-square law behaviour Topic #11: Electromagnetic Induction- 16 Hours for HL Only Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Electromagnetic induction (HL ONLY) 11.1 Electromotive force (emf) Magnetic flux and magnetic flux linkage Faraday’s law of induction Lenz’s law Power generation and transmission (HL ONLY) 11.2 Alternating current (ac) generators Average power and root mean square (rms) values of current and voltage Transformers Diode bridges Half-wave and full-wave rectification Capacitance (HL ONLY) 11.3 Capacitance Dielectric materials Capacitors in series and parallel Resistor-capacitor (RC) series circuits Time constant Topic #12: Quantum and Nuclear Physics- 16 Hours for HL Only Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand The interaction of matter with radiation (HL ONLY) 12.1 Photons The photoelectric effect Matter waves Pair production and pair annihilation Quantization of angular momentum in the Bohr model for hydrogen The wave function The uncertainty principle for energy and time and position and momentum Tunnelling, potential barrier and factors affecting tunnelling probability Nuclear physics (HL ONLY) 12.2 Rutherford scattering and nuclear radius Nuclear energy levels The neutrino The law of radioactive decay and the decay constant Options As a part of the IB Physics course, you cover additional subjects of your choosing from the list below (typically you don’t choose, but rather your teacher does). Whichever option(s) you or your teacher chooses you will cover 3 or 4 topics (15 hours total) for SL and an additional 2 or 3 topics (25 hours total) for HL. Option A: Relativity- 15 Hours for SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand The beginnings of relativity A.1 Reference frames Galilean relativity and Newton’s postulates concerning time and space Maxwell and the constancy of the speed of light Forces on a charge or current Lorentz transformations A.2 The two postulates of special relativity Clock synchronization The Lorentz transformations Velocity addition Invariant quantities (spacetime interval, proper time, proper length and rest mass) Time dilation Length contraction The muon decay experiment Spacetime diagrams A.3 Spacetime diagrams Worldlines The twin paradox Additional HL Relativity Topics- 10 More Hours for HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Relativistic mechanics (HL ONLY) A.4 Total energy and rest energy Relativistic momentum Particle acceleration Electric charge as an invariant quantity Photons MeV c^–2 as the unit of mass and MeV c^–1 as the unit of momentum General Relativity (HL ONLY) A.5 The equivalence principle The bending of light Gravitational redshift and the Pound–Rebka–Snider experiment Schwarzschild black holes Event horizons Time dilation near a black hole Applications of general relativity to the universe as a whole Option B: Engineering Physics- 15 Hours for SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Rigid bodies and rotational dynamics B.1 Torque Moment of inertia Rotational and translational equilibrium Angular acceleration Equations of rotational motion for uniform angular acceleration Newton’s second law applied to angular motion Conservation of angular momentum Thermodynamics B.2 The first law of thermodynamics The second law of thermodynamics Entropy Cyclic processes and pV diagrams Isovolumetric, isobaric, isothermal and adiabatic processes Carnot cycle Thermal efficiency Additional HL Engineering Physics Topics- 10 More Hours for HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Fluids and fluid dynamics (HL ONLY) B.3 Density and pressure Buoyancy and Archimedes’ principle Pascal’s principle Hydrostatic equilibrium The ideal fluid Streamlines The continuity equation The Bernoulli equation and the Bernoulli effect Stokes’ law and viscosity Laminar and turbulent flow and the Reynolds number Forced vibrations and resonance (HL ONLY) B.4 Natural frequency of vibration Q factor and damping Periodic stimulus and the driving frequency Resonance Option C: Imaging- 15 Hours for SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Introduction to imaging C.1 Thin lenses Converging and diverging lenses Converging and diverging mirrors Ray diagrams Real and virtual images Linear and angular magnification Spherical and chromatic aberrations Imaging instrumentation C.2 Optical compound microscopes Simple optical astronomical refracting telescopes Simple optical astronomical reflecting telescopes Single-dish radio telescopes Radio interferometry telescopes Satellite-borne telescopes Fibre optics C.3 Structure of optic fibres Step-index fibres and graded-index fibres Total internal reflection and critical angle Waveguide and material dispersion in optic fibres Attenuation and the decibel (dB) scale Additional HL Imaging Topics- 10 More Hours for HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Medical imaging (HL ONLY) C.4 Detection and recording of X-ray images in medical contexts Generation and detection of ultrasound in medical contexts Medical imaging techniques (magnetic resonance imaging) involving nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) Option D: Astrophysics- 15 Hours for SL and HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Stellar quantities D.1 Objects in the universe The nature of stars Astronomical distances Stellar parallax and its limitations Luminosity and apparent brightness Stellar characteristics and stellar evolution D.2 Stellar spectra Hertzsprung–Russell (HR) diagram Mass–luminosity relation for main sequence stars Cepheid variables Stellar evolution on HR diagrams Red giants, white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes Chandrasekhar and Oppenheimer–Volkoff limits Cosmology D.3 The Big Bang model Cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation Hubble’s law The accelerating universe and redshift (z) The cosmic scale factor (R) Additional HL Astrophysics Topics- 10 More Hours for HL Subtopic Subtopic Number IB Points to Understand Stellar processes (HL ONLY) D.4 The Jeans criterion Nuclear fusion Nucleosynthesis off the main sequence Type Ia and II supernovae Further cosmology (HL ONLY) D.5 The cosmological principle Rotation curves and the mass of galaxies Dark matter Fluctuations in the CMB The cosmological origin of redshift Critical density Dark energy Practical Scheme of Work You also need to complete experiments and experimental reports as a part of any IB Science course. For SL, there is 40 hours of material. For HL, there is 60 hours of material. Here are the activities: Practical activities- 20 hours for SL and 40 hours for HL Lab work in class counts towards these hours Individual investigation (internal assessment-IA)- 10 hours for SL and HL A lab project along with a report that counts as 20% of your IB exam scores (written exam counts for the other 80%) Group 4 Project- 10 hours for SL and HL Students are separated into groups and must conduct an experiment and write a report. What’s Next? Want to brush up on some physics topics? Get your physics fix (phyx?) with our articles on the specific heat of water, acceleration and how to calculate it, and the law of conservation of mass. Hoping to squeeze in some extra IB classes? Learn about the IB courses offered online. Preparing to take the SAT? Check out our complete guide to the SAT. Taking the SAT in the next month? Check out our guide to cramming. Not sure where you want to go to college? Check out our guide to finding your target school. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Monday, October 21, 2019

Everything You Need to Know The Great Gatsby Era

Everything You Need to Know The Great Gatsby Era SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips The Great Gatsby takes place during a time that's now known as the Jazz Age or the Roaring 20s. Wondering what the world was like when Jay Gatsby struck it rich in bootlegging? Curious to see how much Daisy and Myrtle's struggle for more echoes the lives of real women? Interested in the other ways that The Great Gatsbyera matters to the plot of the novel? This article will guide you through the historical, economic, and social movements of the 1920's as they relate to events, themes, and characters in The Great Gatsby. Why DoesThe Great Gatsby EraMatter? Understanding what the world was like during the time the novel is sethelps you in all sorts of ways: Figuring out an author's assumptions. Writers are products of their time, so knowing what they would have assumed to be true makes reading their work richer. For instance, inThe Great Gatsby, it's taken for granted that the Jewish gangster Meyer Wolfshiem would need the WASP-y face of Jay Gatsby to make some of his deals, since Wolfshiem wouldn't have been allowed to join or participate important political and business networks. Getting a deeper grasp of character. To get a really good sense of why characters in the novel do what they do, it's useful to know the specific historical circumstances they are dealing with. For example, it's all well and good to assume that Daisy should leave the boorish Tom, but divorce would have been way more complicated for a woman in the 1920s than it is today. Developing a richer interpretation of symbols, motifs, and themes. Knowing the hot-button issues of the novel's day gives you a good second way to support arguments about the importance of a particular theme, or your reading of the meaning of a symbol. (Of course, the primary support for these arguments should come from the text itself!) Suppose you wanted to analyze the importance of cars in The Great Gatsby. It would help your argument to talk about the sudden skyrocketing prevalence of cars on the road in the 1920s, connecting them to increased danger, status symbol consumerism, and modern life. Historical context: the giant arm propping up the baby that is your argument. When DoesThe Great GatsbyTake Place? The Great Gatsby was published in 1925 and is set in 1922, near the beginning of the decade. (See our article on this novel's publication and reception history for more.) As such, theGreat Gatsby era is theperiod in 20th century U.S. history nicknamed both the â€Å"Roaring 20s† and the "Jazz Age." The first nickname points toAmerica's post-WWIeconomic prosperity and the country's greater influence abroad. The second nickname refers to this period'schanging social norms and daring artistic movements. Gatsbyis now seen as both a product of and a record of the 1920s. What does this mean? Let's explore. Before The Great Gatsby: WWI and Modernism Although many previous events eventually influenced the 1920s, there are two crucialpieces of background history that you have to know. World War I World War I dramatically affected the United States in the 1920s (and, of course, shaped much of the 20th century all over the world as well). On the one hand, it elevatedthe U.S. into a world super power and ushered in a decade-long economic boom.On the other hand, its horrific death toll and seeming meaninglessness forever dispelled the idea of war as noble and glorious. Abrief recap of what happened. After the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the heir of Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1914, Austro-Hungary and its ally Germany declared waragainst Russia. Russian allies France and England were pulled in to defend Russia. The smaller European powers were forced into the war as well, based on whatever alliances they had made in the past.For the first three years, the U.S. remained neutral, instead profiteering from the war by selling supplies toboth sides of the conflict. But, in 1917, the U.S. was pulled into the fighting, fearing an alliance between Germany and Mexico. WWI was a war of trench warfare, chemical weapons, shrapnel artillery, and other gruesome technologies that had never been seen before. When you combine this level of mass destruction with the fact that most of the war was a territorial stalemate (no army advanced, no army withdrew - they were just locked in a horrible tie), it's easy to see how unaccountable the 40 million deaths the war caused were. The survivors of the war - both the veterans and those who came of age during the fighting - were called the Lost Generation. F. Scott Fitzgerald, though he didn't actually see any fighting during his time in the army, was a member of this generation. (See our brief biography of Fitzgerald to learn more.) You should know about WWI (and its aftermath) because: Both Nick Carraway and Jay Gatsby have military backgrounds. Gatsby's early romance with Daisy is heightened by the initial idealism that he was about to go fight in a noble and glorious endeavor. Some of the rumors swirling around Gatsby point to how fresh the war was in everyone's mind (that he was a German spy during the war, or that he is related to Kaiser Wilhelm, who ruled Germany during the war). Modernism and the Lost Generation The war and its devastating after-effects, particularly in Europe, fed into the creation of a new artistic movement: modernism. Modernism was all about breaking with the past. In contrast to 19th century writing that tended to reinforce the status quo, modernism rejected old-fashioned ideas like heroism and moral certitude. Similarly, modernism writers experimented with form and style rather than sticking with traditional forms of prose and poetry. Inspired by the devastation of WWI, writers in The Lost Generationembraced a cynical view of human nature. Fitzgerald himself waspart of a circle of modernists who regularly met inParis (others included Hemingway, Ezra Pound, Sinclair Lewis, and the painters Picasso and Matisse). Fitzgerald wroteThe Great Gatsby while in Paris, surroundedby this group. You can connect modernism withthe novel's descriptions of East Egg and West Egg extravagance. Like his fellow modernists, Fitzgerald was deeply critical of the wealth and capitalist success ushered in by the post-war boom, considering the new obsession with money and status shallow. What trench warfare looked like. Imagine spending weeks in this hole in the ground. The Great Gatsby Era:The Roaring 20s At the time when the novel takes place, the U.S. was in the middle of a tremendous economic boom and a soaring stock market that seemed to be on a permanent upward swing. At the same time, many of the social restrictions of the early 20th century were being rejected, and progressive movements of all kinds were flourishing. Prohibition, Bootlegging,and the Speakeasy Socially progressive activists in both the Democratic and Republican parties united to pressure the government to ban alcohol, which was blamed for all kinds of other social ills like gambling and drug abuse. In 1920, the U.S. passed the 18th Amendment, outlawing the production and sale of alcohol. Of course, this did little to actually stem the desire for alcoholic beverages, so a vast underground criminal empire was born to supply this demand. The production and distributionof alcohol became the province ofbootleggers - the original organized crime syndicates. Selling alcohol was accomplished in many ways, including throughâ€Å"speakeasies† - basically, underground social clubs. Since speakeasies were already side-stepping the law, they also became places where people of different races and genders could mix and mingle in a way they hadn’t previously while enjoying new music like jazz.This marked a shift both in how black culture was understood and appreciated by the rest of the country and in how women’s rights were progressing, as we’ll discuss in the next sections. If you understand the history of Prohibition, you'll make better sense of some plot and character details inThe Great Gatsby: Gatsby makes his fortune through bootlegging and other criminal activities. Gatsby's business partner Meyer Wolfshiem is a gangster who is affiliated with organized crime and is based on the real-life crime boss Arnold Rothstein, who was indeed responsible for fixing the World Series in 1919. Any time someone isdrinking alcohol in the novel, they are doing something illegal, and are clearly in the know about how to get this banned substance. Gatsby’s parties have a speakeasy feel in that people from different backgrounds and genders freely mix and mingle. One of the rumors about Gatsby is that he is involved in a bootlegging pipeline of alcohol from Canada - this is a reference to a real-life scandal about one of the places where illegal alcohol was coming from! Police emptying out confiscated barrels of beer into the sewer. Women’s Rights The 19th Amendment, passed in 1919, officially gave women the right to vote in the United States. Suffrage had been a huge goal of the women’s movement in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, so this victory caused women to continue to push boundaries and fight for more rights during the 1920s. The ramifications of this were political, economic, and social. Politically, the women's rights movement next took up the cause of the Equal Rights Amendment, which would guarantee equal legal rights for women. The amendment came close to eventually being ratifiedin the 1970s, but was defeated by conservatives. Economically, there was an increase in working women. This began during WWI as more women began to work to make up for the men fighting abroad, and as more professions opened up to them in the men's absence. Societally, divorce became more common. Nevertheless, it was still very much frowned on, and being a housewife and having fewer rights than man was still the norm in the 1920s. Another social development wasthe new â€Å"flapper† style. This term described women who would wear much less restricting clothing and go out drinking and dancing, which at the time was a huge violation of typical social norms. If you understand this combination of progress and traditionalism for women's roles, you'll find it on display in The GreatGatsby: Daisycontemplates leaving Tom but ultimately decides to stay. Jordan parties and doesn’t seem to be in a hurry to settle down. Myrtle flouts traditional rules by cheating on her husband but is killed by the end of the book, suggesting women are safest when they toe the line. Women's suffrage parade in New York City. Racial and Religious Minority History The post-war boom also had a positive effect on minorities in the U.S. One of the effects was thatJewish Americanswere atthe forefront of promoting such issues as workers rights, civil rights, woman's rights, and other progressive causes. Jews also served in the American military during World War I in very high numbers. At the same time, their prominence gave rise to an anti-Semitic backlash, and the revival of the KKK began with the lynching of a Jewish man in 1915. Another post-WWI developmentwas the Harlem Renaissance, acultural, social, and artistic flowering among African Americans that took place in Harlem, NY, during the 1920s. Artists from that time include W.E.B. DuBois, Langston Hughes, Zora Neale Hurston, Countee Cullen, Louis Armstrong, and Billie Holiday. You can see the effects of these historical development several places in the novel: jazz music is a fixture of Gatsby’s parties, and almost every song that Fitzgerald describes is a real life piece of music. Nick's love of Manhattan as a diverse melting pot is illustrated by the appearance in Chapter 4 of a car with wealthy black passengers and a white driver. Tom Buchanan's racist rant in Chapter 1 and his fears that the white race will be "overrun" by minorities is based on the backlash that African American advancement occasioned. The novel includes Nick's anti-Semitic description of a Jewish character - Meyer Wolfshiem. There are modern theoriesthatJay Gatsby is may be half blackand that Daisy may actually be Jewish. Zora Neale Hurston and Langston Hughes Automobiles The 1920s saw huge increases in the production and use of automobiles. Almost 1 in 4 people now had a car! This happened because of advances in mass production due to the assembly line, and because of rising incomes due to the economic boom. Car ownership increased mobility between cities and outer suburban areas, which enabled the wealthy to work in one place but live in another. Cars also now created a totally new danger, particularly in combination with alcohol consumption. If you're aware of the newness and attraction of cars, you'll notice that inThe Great Gatsby: The wealthiest characters own cars and use them to commute between Manhattanand Long Island. Cars are clearly used to display wealth and status - even Tom, normally secure in his superiority, wants to brag to George Wilson aboutthesuper-fancy Rolls Royce heborrows from Gatsby. Cars are tools of recklessness, danger, and violence - there are several car accidents in the novel, the most notable of which is when Daisy runs Myrtle over and kills her in Chapter 7. Death machine, or no, you have to admit that's a pretty cool-looking car. The Bottom Line Understanding historical context helps you in all sorts of ways: Figuring out an author's assumptions. Getting a deeper grasp of character. Having a richer interpretation of symbols, motifs, and themes. The Great Gatsby was published in 1925 and is set in 1922, a time nicknamedboth the â€Å"Roaring 20s† and the "Jazz Age." There are two crucialpieces of background history that you have to know to understand the novel: World War I.Its horrific death toll and seeming meaninglessness forever dispelled the idea of war as noble and glorious.The survivors of the war - both the veterans and those who came of age during the fighting - were called the Lost Generation. Modernism and the Lost Generation.Modernism was all about breaking with the past, experimenting with form and style, andembracing a cynical view of human nature. The Great Gatsbyera was distinguised byan economic boom, the rejection of oldsocial restrictions, and progressive movements of all kinds: Prohibition, Bootlegging,and the Speakeasy.The U.S. bannedalcohol, ushering ina vast underground criminal empire, including speakeasies -underground social clubs. Women’s Rights.The 19th Amendment gave women the right to vote.Politically, the women's rights movement next took up the cause of the Equal Rights Amendment.Economically, there was an increase in working women.Societally, divorce became more common, and the "flapper" style was born. Racial and Religious Minority History.Jewish Americanswere atthe forefront of promoting progressive causes.Another post-WWI developmentwas the Harlem Renaissance, acultural, social, and artistic flowering among African Americans. Automobiles.Car ownership increased mobility between cities and outer suburban areas, andcreated a totally new danger, particularly in combination with alcohol consumption. What’s Next? Learn more about how The Great Gatsby was received when it first came out, and also read about the life ofits author, F. Scott Fitzgerald. Excited to dive in? Check out our articles onGatsby’s title, its opening pages and epigraph, and itsfirst chapter. Or, zoom out toa summary of The Great Gatsby, along with links to all ourgreat articles analyzing this novel! Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The Role of Communication in an Organization Essay Example

The Role of Communication in an Organization Essay Example The Role of Communication in an Organization Essay The Role of Communication in an Organization Essay Communication plays a very important role in an organization. In fact, it is said to be the life wire of the organization. Nothing in the universe, human or otherwise, that does not communicate; though the means of communication may be very different. Communication is very crucial and unavoidable since we have intentions which we want to pass across to another person, group or even to the outside world. Communication in an organization is inevitable. Departments communicate from time to time in respect to daily activities and the organizations relationship with the external world. It says what it intended via written and unwritten means, either planned or impromptu. It could be hierarchical, that is, from top to bottom or vice versa. It could be formal or informal; vertical, horizontal or diagonal. Whichever means, modes or types of communication, what matters is that communication takes place. However, what is being communicated may be well understood and thus feedback or misunderstood or insufficient and thus communication breakdown. In fact, communication within an organization could be grapevine or rumour. In all, communication in an organization is very complex and it needs to be correctly handled and monitored to avoid chaos, crisis or conflict. The basic functions and roles of the management could not be performed without communication. Planning, organizing, coordinating, budgeting, monitoring, controlling, staffing, delegation; and including marketing, production, financing, staffing (human resource managing), research and development, purchasing, selling, etc could not be well coordinated, harnessed and their goals achieved without communication. At meetings, annual general meeting, ordinary meeting, urgent meeting, etc, communication plays a key role. The effectiveness of an organization also depends on the success of its meetings where goals to be achieved, targets to be met, and activities to be carried out are ironed out and discussed. If the ideas are not well understood at the meeting, then one need to be sure that the workers will mess up everything. Thus, the chairman of the meeting must be an effective speaker or communication capable of ensuring that everyone got what has been discussed correctly. This will help eradicate rumor and grapevine and likewise help achieve set standards, goals and/or objectives. In conclusion, everyone in an organization needs to have good communication skill, not the boss only, but also the subordinates. It is what all of us (workers) need to jointly strive to achieve the set goals. Remove communication in an organization, we are going to have dead entity, good for nothing and worth been shut down. Communication is the backbone for organizations success.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Annual report about apple company Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Annual report about apple company - Essay Example In order to provide differentiated and unique products, the company engages in innovation each year providing their consumers with products that use groundbreaking technology whose introduction to the market is backed by an effective marketing and advertisement strategy. Consequently, a combination of these approaches ensures that Apple Inc’s products become synonymous with cult-brands. Nonetheless, it is important to identify the objectives of the company in order to understand the marketing and advertisement strategy that the company uses to promote its products. Through providing innovative hardware, software, services, and peripherals, the company’s objective is to bring out the best user experiences by providing differentiated and unique products in terms of design and the operating systems, which sets them apart from the competitors (Apple Inc. 2012). For this reason, the innovation the company engages in provides consumers with new products and services that are superior in quality while being easy to use, provide seamless integration, and provide innovative designs. In effect, innovation has helped the company gain competitive advantage in the industry since its strategic approach ensures that the company produces differentiated products that provide it with a competitive edge whose innovations are not as unique and differentiated as Apple products. In the contemporary society, it is evident that information and technological innovations keep on evolving with various companies frequently producing new product offering. For this reason, companies operating in this sector face stiff competition due to these new products and services on offer. Nonetheless, a good marketing strategy ensures that Apple Inc. is able to compete effectively in the competitive business environment while also maintaining a competitive edge over its competitors. In order to effectively position the company to consumers in this competitive sector, the company has focu sed their marketing strategy by providing products with appealing designs, focused their product offering, and provided designs and products that are easy to use for their consumers (McDonald and Keegan 2002). Other than offering differentiated products, Apple Inc. practice market segmentation by dividing their marketing offering into five distinct segments. These segments are the consumer segment, Small and Medium-sized Business segment, education segment, enterprise segment, and government segment with each market segment provided with unique products from the company that meet the needs and preferences of consumers in each segment (Apple Inc. 2012). Under the education segment, the company offers products to consumers in educational institutions with the products on offer providing them with the requisite knowledge and set of skills that enhance their learning. In addition, the company offers special pricing for consumers in this category. On the other hand, government agencies a lso offer various products and services that specifically meet their needs and objectives of offering services to the public in a seamless approach. Similarly, other segments of the markets that the company offers are unique to the company seeking to provide products meant for each market segment with these products meeting the specific needs of the customers under

Friday, October 18, 2019

International Trade and Business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

International Trade and Business - Essay Example In developed countries multinational companies are likely to face consumers who have a large disposable income and therefore consumers are more concerned about the quality and not the price, in other developing countries consumers are more concerned about the price and quantity. Different countries have their own standards set by governments and even the consumers, example a multinational company aimed at producing food stuffs may be required to provide its production formula to the authorities in order for them to determine whether such products are fit, an example is the venture of coca cola company into India where the company was supposed to provide information about the formula used to make the drinks, the company declined and its rival Pepsi provided its formula and entered the market, however the authorities later announced that Pepsi contained harmful substances that were used in making pesticides. From this example therefore it shows the extent of the problem faced by a multinational company due to the cultural differences. The government may also have a different culture and policy whereby the firm may be required to hire workers from the host country and not import its own workers from abroad, this posses a problem due to the existence of differing labour laws and movements, the available labour may also not be as efficient and may not be as productive and therefore the problem of inefficiency may arise due to these policies by the government. Language differences: A multinational company may face language barriers whereby there may be a language used in the host country may differ from their native language, this may pose a problem whereby the company may incur expenses hiring interpreters in the host country. Other differences may be the use of colour in their products where some products may be rejected in the bases of colours that may signify certain feelings about a product. All these should be taken into consideration before initiating any investment. Individualism and collectivism: Individualism refers to the existence of very weak ties between the individual and other members in the society, collectivism refers to a situation where there are strong ties between the individual and the other members of the society, multinational companies face these cultural difference because in cases where the society is characterised by collectivism people who are born in the same family are strongly integrated which protect them for the exchange for continuing loyalty,

Recognize how group and social factors affect learning Essay

Recognize how group and social factors affect learning - Essay Example People who are under these conditions are often considered to be poor, impoverished, in low income, or broke (Wikipedia, 2006). Though in general poverty is defined as the lack of money, in a holistic definition of poverty it is the continuous denial of the resources, capabilities, choices, security and power essential for fulfillment of an adequate standard of living and other civil, cultural, economic, political and social rights. Poverty is a subjective experience and a structural deficit. There are several factors that influence education and one of the main reasons for it is poverty. There is a connection between poverty and the impact this has on childrens education. When a family is in poverty and fighting for its survival their childs education is not looked at as a high priority. Survival is the first priority. This doesn’t mean that parents did not care about their childs education, but they are not in a position to manage it. There is a spectacular change in the behavior of students as poverty level grows in school system. This behavior is brought on by the lack of parental commitment in their childs daily activities. Most parents may be working multiple jobs to get by and hence rarely see their children, but for some parents do not care to know what their children are doing on a daily basis. This leads to more pessimistic behaviors and also to poor grades. Poor parents may not have enough education to help students, when they are at home. Many students come to school with various worries about their lives, and learning is not at the top of the list. The living environment of these students has a lot to do with learning (WikEd, 2006). Despite these challenges education at all levels is promoted as a powerful resource to raise awareness, motivation and social responsibility for contributing to a more democratic society (Preece, N.D.). Education departments should not throw up their hands in failure. There should be additional

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Tikka enterprise and saffronspices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tikka enterprise and saffronspices - Essay Example the population of Indians in Scotland is large, the deal between the Tikka enterprises and Saffron Spice’s was that Tikka will be taught on how to prepare Indian foods. The task given to the Scottish company is the causative element of the conflict. In this case, socialization and interaction between team members dictate that there must be a hierarchy among the group members. Also, there must exist a limited resource/ need that every group member is struggling to attain (Furnell, 17). The conflict can be solved easily if both parties, especially, the Saffron Spice’s enterprise moves to court and make agreements with Barbara in the presence of the justice system. Naresh will, therefore, have a filed document that can sue the counterpart enterprise if they do not adhere to the agreement and make the required payments. For Tikka enterprises, both Indians and Scottish can be prepared different meals so that they can keep authentic food preferred by each race. Hence, this will improve the business (Furnell 7). In conclusion, satisfaction is the key factor in every business. On the other hand, every company wants to make maximum profits out of the ready market. Therefore, both companies can decide to operate the business together such that Indians are employed to cook for their fellow


DEPARTMENT OF CHILDREN AND FAMILIES (DFC) - Essay Example The department’s yearly budget targets protection of over a hundred thousand youths while at the same time strengthening families around the commonwealth (Working at the Department of Children and Families, 2011). The paper will also focus at the type of work done at the department with the employees who are family centered, child driven, community focused, strength based, commitment to continuous learning as well as being committed to cultural/diversity competences. The paper will also discuss the various national and state policies that aim at preventing mistreatment of the children and preserving their rights. The American citizen as well as professionals associated with child health believes that parents have the responsibility of caring and nurturing their children while protecting them from harm. However, the state may be allowed to intervene in cases where the parents have failed to honor their duties and in cases of abuse. The children and family department aims at ensuring that children thrive and grow in a home environment that is nurturing. The approach sometime often entails making challenging and difficult decisions in which children are removed from their home environment and placed in environment that are more stable. The department is able to deal with numerous problems that affect children and their families such as abandonment, neglect and suspected child abuse. Such issues have raised concerns and the authorities have taken measures to stop them from happening in the community. The children and family departments have put in place various legislations with the intention of ensuring that people who suspects abuse of children have a mandate to report through telephone or any mean so that the children may be rescued and transferred to a better environment. One of the goals of the department is to stop neglect and child abuse. The department receives numerous reports of neglect and abuse of chi ldren

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Tikka enterprise and saffronspices Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Tikka enterprise and saffronspices - Essay Example the population of Indians in Scotland is large, the deal between the Tikka enterprises and Saffron Spice’s was that Tikka will be taught on how to prepare Indian foods. The task given to the Scottish company is the causative element of the conflict. In this case, socialization and interaction between team members dictate that there must be a hierarchy among the group members. Also, there must exist a limited resource/ need that every group member is struggling to attain (Furnell, 17). The conflict can be solved easily if both parties, especially, the Saffron Spice’s enterprise moves to court and make agreements with Barbara in the presence of the justice system. Naresh will, therefore, have a filed document that can sue the counterpart enterprise if they do not adhere to the agreement and make the required payments. For Tikka enterprises, both Indians and Scottish can be prepared different meals so that they can keep authentic food preferred by each race. Hence, this will improve the business (Furnell 7). In conclusion, satisfaction is the key factor in every business. On the other hand, every company wants to make maximum profits out of the ready market. Therefore, both companies can decide to operate the business together such that Indians are employed to cook for their fellow

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

World Music - Authenticity and Ethucs in World Music Essay

World Music - Authenticity and Ethucs in World Music - Essay Example According to Byrne, â€Å"What is considered authentic today was probably some kind of bastard fusion a few years ago.† (â€Å"I Hate World Music†). Similar views are expressed by Sasha Frere-Jones who comments (â€Å"Bingo in Swansea†): â€Å"World music† is a category that does nobody any favors. Entirely disparate performers, like the dapper Brazilian singer-songwriter Caetano Veloso and the African blues guitarist Ali Farka Toure, get lumped together in American record stores simply because they don’t sing exclusively in English. Personally speaking, I do not agree with this at all. I am a fan of fusion music. Not only do such recordings provide us a celestial insight into various vivid and exotic ethnicities of the world, they also offer a unique blend of different cultures to meet our ever-changing tastes. An authentic World Music is spontaneous and preserves the actual events, apart from being directly carried on from cultural tradition. The true music prodigies of the world are those who play not merely for money but primarily for their indomitable passion for music. We talk about ‘Globalization’. Is it only restricted to world business and economical spectrum? If the answer is no, then why can’t we accept the mingling of cultures? In fact, we have already accepted it long time back. If it would not have been so, we would have stuck to burgers and pies rather than extending our taste-buds to pizzas, momos, chowmein, enchiladas, nachos, and endless menu of dishes from all around the globe. For those who are of the opinion that world music is misleading the present youth, I would like to ask, â€Å"When we can encourage multinational companies and rejoice multi-cuisine restaurants, then can’t we have a similar passion for multi-cultured music?† Variety is indeed the spice of life. In our busy and stressful schedules, tuning on to the apt music is a real healer. I

Ethical Decision Making by Individuals Essay Example for Free

Ethical Decision Making by Individuals Essay Existing theoretical models of individual ethical decision making in organizations place little or no emphasis on characteristics of the ethical issue itself. This article (a) proposes an issue-contingent model containing a new set of variables called moral intensity: (b) using concepts, theory, and evidence derived largely from social psychology, argues that moral intensity influences every component of moral decision making and behavior: (c) offers four research propositions, and (d) discusses implications of the theory. Conclusions and Implications Existing theoretical models have ignored the effect of characteristics of the moral issue itself on ethical decision making and behavior in organizations. Taken at face value, these models suggest that individuals will decide and behave in the same manner regardless of the nature of the moral issue involved. An employee of a drug manufacturer would view the release of a dangerous drug by his or her firm with the same alarm (or lack of alarm) that he or she viewed the theft of a few diskettes from the company supply cabinet by a fellow employee. The issue-contingent model proposed here explicitly rejects this view and suggests that the moral intensity of the issue itself has a significant effect on moral decision making and behavior at all stages of the process. If this model is found to have empirical support, the testing of other models would be significantly affected. Controlling for issue traits would become an integral part of a meaningful test of Trevinos (1986) person-situation interactionist model, for example; the relative importance of personal factors and situational factors might vary considerably, from issue to issue. Similarly, issue charucteristics could alter the balance of teleological and deontological considerations in the moral evaluation stage of Hunt and Vitells (1986) general theory model of marketing ethics. Perhaps the most important potential impact of an empirical finding that ethical decision making and behavior are issue contingent involves the applicability of the models themselves. Moral intensity is expected to play a major role in the recognition of moral issues and, hence, in the actual engagement of moral decision-making processes instead of, or in addition to, other decision-making schemata. Simply stated, the details of moral decision-making and behavior processes become irrelevant if the person does not recognize that he or she is dealing with a moral issue. Future models of ethical decision making should include some consideration of the effect of the moral agents failure to recognize the moral issue. Moral intensity is also relevant to the general applicability of Kohlbergs (1976) theory of cognitive moral development. If moral development is issue contingent, as this article and some emerging empirical evidence suggest, then Kohlbergs theory would have to be substantially revised, and much of the research based on it would have to be reappraised. Future research based on his developmental theory would have to control for traits of the moral issues involved. From a practical point of view, issue contingency is important to normative judgments of moral decisions and of the people who make them. Many of the elements of moral intensity (magnitude of consequences, probability of effect, temporal immediacy, and concentration of effect) are directly related to judgments of the importance of moral issues. If these elements of moral intensity are found to be positively linked to moral behavior, it can be concluded that people generally behave better when the moral issue is important than they do when it is unimportant. Regardless of a persons views regarding the overall moral tenor of society or its alleged decline in recent years, he or she could easily be encouraged by the finding that peoples best moral behavior is inspired by issues of substantial importance.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Construction Waste Management Strategies

Construction Waste Management Strategies Introduction The construction sector is an important solid waste generator. In Brazil, the recent economic and politics growth has rapidly encouraged further development and investment in the construction sector. Nevertheless, such speedy growth of the Brazilian’s construction has brought an elevated concern and attention to the waste problem and its management for a developing country growth like Brazil. Nagalli, 2012 Like in Europe, Brazil has a compulsory regulation on construction projects to reduce the construction and demolition waste. The national laws obligate the builders to be responsible for the waste of their works. It is legally consolidated and requires the builders a proactive posture in sense to planning the waste management. Nagalli, 2012. The municipalities are the responsible party on the waste management in Brazil, except for the private investments such as (industries, private constructions or demolitions, etc.). Bà ¡ez et al. 2012. However, only (11) which presents (0.25%) of about 5000 Brazilian municipalities have construction and demolition (CD) waste recycling center As well as there are (13) stationary plants and recycling waste center produced in local communities. Therefore, it’s quite clear that a large part of the waste is not recycled in Brazil. It is also worth mentioning that since the established of CONAMA 2002 (Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency); things are moving better and all Brazilian local governments are nowadays obliged to prepare and adopt strategies for sustainable management of CD waste. MMA, 2002. All investors are obliged to produce feasibility studies plans of the production and use of construction and demolition (CD) wastes materials of each project. Notwithstanding, a very little amount of researches have been conducted to demonstrate the feasibility of the construction and demolition (CD) waste recycling centers. Professional inquiries illustrated that private projec ts which produces 20 tons per hour (t/h) or less of CD waste processing flow will probably not be met financially to continue, due to the low productivity and lack manufactured product prices, as the use of manufactured products are still not widespread so the investment in recycling on large scale with complex facilities centers will not be cost-effective neither. 02 Feasibility Analysis : Many studies and researches are taken place to develop plans for the feasibility study for the complex projects and the (CD) waste recycling centers in Brazil. One of this study was by UNIDO (1987), which presented a structural model for feasibility studies to complex projects, including a huge investments from different sources of funding and simplify the study and structure then adding control elements described by another important study from Kohler (1997), the following main stages were identified in preliminary feasibility studies for construction and demolition (CD) waste recycling centers as follows: Analysis of market needs and the amount of existing competition from different sources. Depends on the geographical location of the center. Assessment and estimated of waste generation. Depends on the geographical location of the center. The estimated incomes and cost from the construction and demolition waste. Investment analysis in construction and demolition waste field. Market Competition study analysis: There are plentiful resources for civil construction combining several elements in Brazil. The main consumer construction and demolition waste centers are located in areas with good and convenient quality of different reserves. According to DNPM (2003), â€Å"sand and gravel are low in price and produced in large quantities. Transport costs correspond to around 2/3 of the end price of the product, which make it necessary to produce sand and gravel as near as possible to the consumer market, which are the urban agglomerates†. In Brazil, which is one of the developing countries, the rate of consumption is estimated at approximately (2) tons /inhabitant a year. Sindipedras (2004). Comparing that figure with Europe countries, we found that Brazil has low consumption where the average consumption in Europe reaches (8-10) tons/inhabitant a year. Taking into account that the population in Brazil is about (180 million) IBGE(2000), so the total consumption estimated to nearly (270) tons a year about (175) million cubic meter. Table no.1: The rate of construction aggregates prices without transport.( SINDIBRITA.2004). Aggregates Aggregate grading Prices (excl. taxes) ( Prices (incl.taxes) (diameter in mm) (GBP $/m ³) (GBP $/t) (GBP $/m ³) (GBP $/t) Sands 3.10 1.80 4.00 2.35 Stone powders 3.10 2.00 4.00 2.55 Gravel 0, 1, 2, 3 from 5.0 to 75.0 3.80 2.60 4.85 3.36 Mixed Gravel from 5.0 to 55.0 3.10 1.75 4.00 2.27 ESTIMATED PRODUCTION OF CD WASTE We should know the productivity and collection of (CD) waste to find out the needs and the interest of developing and establishing recycling centers. From Table no.2 below, estimates from the production and collection of construction and demolition (CD) waste in some of the main Brazilian Cities: Table 2: Estimative for production / collection of CD waste in some Brazilian cities (Nunes, 2004) Cities Estimative of CD waste Year- Population (IBGE, Production per inhabitant (kg/ Collection per inhabitant Produced Collected 2000) (kg/ Riode Janeiro n/a 1,100 2003 5,850,000 n/a 0.20 Salvador n/a. 2,750 2000 2,450,000 n/a 1.15 Sà £o Paulo 16,000 3,400 2001 10,440,000 1.55 0.40 Ribeirà £o Preto 1,100 200 2003 505,000 2.00 0.55 Sà £o Josà © 740 n/a 1995 540,000 1.50 n/a Piracicaba 635 n/a. 2003 330,000 1.88 n/a Vinhedo n/a. 10 2003 48,000 n/a 0.32 Guarulhos n/a. n/a. 1,100,000 n/a n/a Ribeirà £o Pires n/a. n/a. 105,000 n/a. n/a Sà £o Josà © do Rio Preto 690 n/a. 1996 360,000 1.92 n/a Santo Andrà © 1,000 n/a 1996 650,000 1.56 n/a. Belo Horizonte n/a. 2,300 2000 2,240,000 n/a 1.05 Londrina 1,300 n/a 2003 450,000 2.86 n/a Brasà ­lia n/a. n/a 2,055,000 n/a n/a Macaà © 40 2003 133,000 n/a 0.34 Florianà ³polis 635 n/a 2001 286,000 2.23 n/a Averages 2.00 0.65 The Rio de Janeiro city estimates a collection of 1,100 ton/day (0.20 kg/inhabitant .day), an amount below the average in other cities under study. The reason that some municipalities are less than the average for the disposal of waste is the illegal and calculated within the general waste in official statistical tables. IBGE (2000) ESTIMATED REVENUES AND COSTS In Brazil, the equipment used in the (CD) waste recycling center requires large investment. Most equipment used in the mining sector, which is one of the largest and powerful sector in Brazil, this was calculated when analysis or estimate the profits and benefits of investment. The Table no.3 below shows the form of the fixed capital investment required for (20) tons/hour which we can call it as a small center and (100) tons/hour as a medium center depending on the size of the production and the new or used equipment. It’s possible to add some cost with equipment and site, the costs with site acquisition, transportation and the way of disposal the recycling center rejects. Nunes (2004) Through consultations to many professionals, it was found that the minimum size of a site for  a recycling center would be: (a) 6.000 m ² the appropriate area for the (20) tons/hour recycling centers; (b) 30.000 m ² area for the (100) tons/hour recycling centers. Table 3: Investment in fixed capital and the operational costs (summary). SINDIBRITA (2004). Operational Costs Fixed Costs CONCLUSION: The Brazilian civil construction’s aggregates are available in wide range with good quality and close to the urban consumer centers. It’s worth mentioning that both aggregates as well as several new construction projects prices have been low for some time. Hence, and in order to attract more clients and bring better attention to such industry, the prices of the recycled aggregates must be competitive with the natural aggregates. Meanwhile, the (CD) waste reception as well as the recycling centers has to compete with the landfills. According to the Brazilian state-of-art, large amounts of inert material are usually needed to cover the landfill cells. The material is also required to build the access roads and maneuvering areas for the waste collection trucks on the landfills. Therefore, the inert landfills do set as high competitors with recycling centers in relation to reception of (CD) waste. It was therefore recommended that two different recycling centers’ pro jects should be analyzed in order to capitalize and boost such industry forward: one, a small scale (20 t/h), and the other midsize (100 t/h) with the assumption of the use of processed products and the absence of (CD) waste recycling projects in the country due to the lack of such industry tradition, the feasibility of future private recycling centers will initially be somewhere between the two aforementioned capacities. Nunes (2004) References: Andrà © Nagalli , (2012) â€Å"Quantitative Method for Estimating Construction Waste Generation† Bà ¡ez AG, Sà ¡ez PV, Merino MR, Navarro JG (2012). Waste Management. MMA (Ministry of the Environment) (2002) CONAMA Resolution no. 307. UNIDO (United Nations Industrial Development Organization) (1987). Kohler, G. (1997), Practice of Recycling: Construction Materials. CONAMA 2002(Brazilian Environmental Protection Agency). Ângulo, S. C. (2002) (Development of new markets for the recycling of CD waste). DNPM (National Department for Mineral Research) (2006). Sindipedra (Federation of the Gravel Mining Industry of the State of Sà £o Paulo) (2004). IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) (2000)

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay --

Throughout Jewish History we have seen significant transitions from 2,000 B.C.E. to 1492 C.E. These transitions changed many different aspects of Jewish life. There are three specific events or turning points that caused tremendous change in Jewish life and had many ramifications. These three events were the Formation of the United Monarchy, the Rise of Hellenism and the Golden Age of Spain. Each of these transitions impacted Judaism in different ways that changed it forever. The different groups of people involved changed different parts of Jewish life including linguistics, politics, traditions, and literature. The United Monarchy took place between 1020 and 921 B.C.E. It was the transition between a tribal society and an actual form of government. In this monarchy, Samuel appointed Saul to be the first King. Saul was replaced by King David and eventually was followed by Solomon. This era was the most documented era throughout Biblical history. During this time period, David was God’s right hand man. Jewish people believed that the Messiah was once a living King somewhere in the Davidic bloodline. They believe the Messiah in the Bible was a human King. The word Messiah means â€Å"anointed one†. David is the one who brings together loose tribes into a government. He institutes many new things like scribe culture and census records. This becomes known as the prototype for the ideal Jewish monarch. He establishes the city of Jerusalem or the â€Å"City of David†. His legacy becomes a major theme in Jewish history. Through him, the First temple was built for worship and f or sacrifice in 950 B.C.E. This temple was extremely important to the Jewish people. It was the center for worship and politics for the kingdom of Judah. The Babylonians e... ...ed, you sent Seraphim to tell him of your great goodness. They sat down beside me and then Michael said: â€Å"This is God’s message who pleads your cause: ‘On the day that you cross waters of sorrow I am with you. When the enemy draws near, the rivers will not drowned you.’ † These three transitions had a huge effect on Jewish life in many different ways and were major turning points in Jewish history. In all three of these periods the Jews underwent many changes in their lives in many different categories. Although massive changes were made, in each of these eras the Jews somehow managed to keep their cultural identity even while adapting to other ways of life. They never lost sight of their heritage. Therefore, the Formation of the United Monarchy, the Rise of Hellenism and the Golden Age of Spain were the three most important points of ruptures in Jewish history.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Achetypal Works of Dystopian Literature Essay -- Essays Papers

Achetypal Works of Dystopian Literature The endeavor to achieve utopia, the best existence obtainable to humanity, is a response to the problems present in society. It is a way of dealing in the imagination with these problems, suggesting an ideal for society to strive towards. From Plato’s Republic on, however, utopia has had a characteristic shortcoming. Huxley observed that the inhabitants of Utopia are radically unlike human beings. Their creators spend all their ink and energy in discussing, not what actually happens, but what would happen if men and women were quite different from what they are and from what, throughout recorded history, they have always been (Kennedy 44). The search for utopia continues strongly today, except in place of the traditional, constructive, positive utopias, we have what is almost a new literary strain-utopia in reverse, cacotopia, the worst of all possible worlds (Herzog 74). This anti-utopian society is one in which characters lead dehumanized lives because a utopian ideal has fallen apart or gone afoul of its original intent. The main characters in dystopian novels are often trapped in their lives and struggling to escape; these novels usually intend to criticize existing social conditions and political systems. While utopian literature portrays ideal worlds, dystopian literature depicts the flaws and failures of imaginative societies. Often these societies are related to utopias, and the dystopian writers have chosen to reveal shortcomings of those social systems previously considered ideal (Booker 10). Many critics rank Aldous Huxely’s Brave New World and George Orwell’s novel Nineteen Eighty-Four as two model works of dystopian literature (Cushing 521). Both novels ... ...ter with Wendy Cole, â€Å"What Ever Happened To Play?† in Time Magazine, April 28, 2001. Available,8816,107264,00.html. Kluger, Jeffrey, â€Å"Next Up: Prozac,† in Time Magazine, Vol. 152, No. 22, November 30, 1998. Available McMichael, Charles T., â€Å"Aldous Huxley’s ‘Island’: The Final Vision,† in Studies in the Literary Imagination. Vol. 1, No. 2, April, 1968. Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Penguin Books USA Inc., 1981. Schellenberg, James, â€Å"Review of George Orwell’s 1984,† in George Orwell. New York: Penguin, 1984. Anonymous, â€Å"Are We Living in an Orwellian World?† Available von Hoffman, Nicholas, â€Å"Huxley Vindicated,† in The Spectator, Vol. 249, No. 8036, July 17, 1982.

Friday, October 11, 2019

How have the values of the boys changed by Chapter 10? Essay

In chapter 10 there is a shift of values form a democracy to a dictatorship. Following Jack’s rebellion most of the boys have left camp and joined forces with Jack, now known as ‘The Chief’, at Castle Rock. Since they first landed on the island as innocent school children a lot has changed, as many of the values which they once held are disregarded on account of them being stranded on the island. When Jack first arrived on the island he was the eldest and naturally assumed that it was his destiny to be in charge. As head choir boy, Jack has been set aside from the rest, â€Å"golden cap badge† and it is obvious that back home he was very important and was given the authority in terms of the choir. Due to the control he exerts we can understand that prior to landing on the island, Jack was a leader who ruled by fear. When they first meet the rest of the boys it takes the combined efforts of begging â€Å"But, Merridew. Please, Merridew †¦ can’t we?† and a boy fainting for him to consider the two groups merging. Here we can see Jack’s instant aversion to situations where he is not fully in charge. This means that often times he would prefer separatism, as we see when he distinguishes the Hunters, to co-habitation where making compromises and accept other people’s points of view. We know that Jack doesn’t like this because before he goes to form his own tribe he says † It’s time some people knew they’ve got to keep quiet and leave deciding things to the rest of us.† Jack was at first in agreement with the request for democracy but this was only because he was convinced that he would win the vote. When he realises that he has in fact lost out to Ralph he â€Å"blush[es] with mortification†. He is not sure whether to stay or go when he is offered charge of the Hunters. By taking over the hunters Jack tries to gain favour with the boys because he thinks that the boys will become dependent on him. However the longing for rescue and the fact that the tool for rescue is Ralph’s brainchild means that Ralph continued to have the upper hand on Jack. Despite this Jack still tries his best to prove himself to the boys. For example, at first like many of the boys on the island Jack is unable to kill however now, behind the mask, he kills to show his power and control over the lives of others. However William Golding makes the death of Simon strange, in that Jack does not take responsibility and is almost afraid of what he has become. â€Å"Roger gathered a handful of stones and began to throw them. Yet there was a space round Henry, perhaps six yards in diameter, into which he dare not throw. Here, invisible yet strong, was the taboo of the old life. Round the squatting child was the protection of parents and school and policemen and the law.† Roger is portrayed to be a very cruel character and this quotation shows the beginning if the boy’s falls into uncivilisation however at this early stage the boys still act in a civilised nature. However like many of the older boys Roger chooses to test the water and soon enough the urge to destroy overcomes him. Despite this Roger still feels restricted by â€Å"parents and school and policemen and the law†-the adults who make the rules and make sure they are followed. However before long, Roger and most of the other boys lose their respect for values and morals, and violence, torture, and murder break out as the savagery becomes the distinctive sway i n the group At first Ralph is esteemed and supports all the boys on the island due to the way that he has kept a level head despite being on tropical island. His strong-willed nature means that when others break down he is still solid. However with talks of beasts and mutiny Ralph becomes disgruntled and begins to think of home a lot. Towards the end of the book despite having the symbol of democracy, the conch he feels that that this is useless against Jack’s oppressive regime.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Cognitive Approach to Psychology

Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology Shane Galvin Class: 061/AT Applied Psychology Teacher: Carol Neenan Title: Psychological Perspective Word count: 3121 The Cognitive Approach to Psychology Contents Page 1 – Contents Page 2 – Introduction Page 3 – History Page 4 – Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science Page 6- Research methods i) iii) v) Reaction time Studies Eye Tracking Studies Psychophysics ii) iv) vi) Priming Studies Lateralisation Studies Single-Cell Studies Page 8 – Memory Storage and Models Page 10 – Therapeutic Applications Page 11 – Evaluation Page 12 – Bibliography Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology The Cognitive Approach to Psychology What is Cognitive Psychology? Literally, ‘Cognition’ means knowing, but in the greater framework of Psychology, Cognition is thinking, perceiving information, understanding, construction and presentation of an answer to a question. Essentially, cognition is a ter m for the use of our mental processes. â€Å"Cognitive Psychology is the study of higher mental processes such as attention, language use, memory, perception, problem solving, and thinking. † (Gerrig & Zimbardo. 2002) Cognitive Psychology uses scientific methods and scrutiny to develop a deeper understanding of the human mind, rather than the brain, a methodology perhaps adapted from Behaviourism, in which modern Cognitive Psychology holds its roots. Yet, unlike behaviourism, which only focuses on observable behaviour, Cognitive Psychology is also concerned with internal mental states. 2 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology History In 1932, Behaviourist Edward Tolman published his book â€Å"Purposive Behaviour in Animals and Men† In his works Tolman studied rats in a maze, in which food was placed at the end of the maze.In the initial phase of a test, the rat would not be hungry while first entering the maze; this would allow the rat to learn where the food would be and to associate a certain location with the prospect of food. Of course, being armed with such a primal survival instinct would influence the rat to learn and adapt quickly. The rat would move in the general direction of the food as opposed to a specific pathway and Tolman observed that the rats were able to use untrained routes towards the food.This meant that rats had an ability to learn, beyond mere survival instinct and presented a problem for radical behaviourism. Whether Tolman knew it or not, both he and his rats were laying down the groundwork for modern cognitive psychology. Tolman theorized that the animal had developed an image of its environment that it later used as a reference when finding its food. This is called a â€Å"Cognitive Map† i. e. , the rats showed use of their cognitive map by reaching a goal (food) from a number of different starting points.The rats had no instinctive information of the maze and no stimuli that would condition it to have knowledg e of the maze, in other words; the rats learned about their environment and stored the information. This helped to establish some basis for memory storage, learned behaviour and analytical methodology for Cognitive Psychology and would help Psychologists prepare for the â€Å"Cognitive Revolution† of the 1950’s where Cognitive Psychology and its principle areas of research begin to become defined. 3 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied PsychologyThe Term â€Å"Cognitive Psychology† came into use in 1967 in the book Cognitive Psychology by Neisser. â€Å"†¦ the term cognition refers to all processes by which the sensory input is transformed , reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered and used†¦ it is apparent that cognition is involved in everything a human being might possibly do; that every psychological phenomena is a cognitive phenomena† (Neisser, 1967) Perhaps it was the invention of the computer that gave Cognitive Psychology the most credibility.For t he first time in history, mankind had something to which it could compare with the human brain or mind, and gave the cognitive approach its terminology. By being able to study a simpler artificial construct, psychologists now had the opportunity to learn more about cognitive processes. â€Å"Cognitive psychology focuses on the way humans process information, looking at how we treat information that comes in to the person (what behaviorists would call stimuli), and how this treatment leads to responses. In other words, they are interested in the variables that mediate between stimulus/input and response/output. (McLeod, 2007) Cognitive Psychology and Cognitive Science Part of the effect that the cognitive revolution had on its approach is the amalgamation of techniques and ideology’s from other distinct areas of research and study such as linguistics, computer science, developmental psychology and cognitive psychology. It seems as though it is a reaction to the ‘stimulu s-response’ methodology and mode of interpretation espoused by behavioural scientists. Noam Chomsky theorised that the brain had a centre for language acquisition that went beyond what could be explained by behavioural psychology.Jean Piaget had laid out stages of cognitive development that children go through which again could not be explained within the framework of Behaviourism. Computer scientists provided a new way of comparably examining the brain by using computer processing as a method to conceptualise brain processing. â€Å"These scientists maintained their own distinct methodologies†¦ but they held together and remained united in their interest in cognition and in their goal to bring the scientific study of these processes to light. This scientific collective became known as cognitive science† (Solso, et al. 2008) In modern times cognitive science relies on computer science, philosophy, psychology, neuroscience, linguistics and anthropology. Cognitive s cience is heavily influenced by computer science; in computer modelling it is possible to construct and test cognitive models, in the form of artificial intelligence (AI) which has leaked into popular use in the form of interactive technology such as video gaming. 4 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology But it is of particular benefit to psychologists because they can test certain, although limited, cognitive models and theories based on computer models.Cognitive Psychology uses a combination of techniques adapted from other areas of research in order to research its own theories, thus we have an intrinsic relationship between cognitive psychology and other methodologies as illustrated in Gardner’s Hexagon. The diverse range of methodologies in the cognitive approach allows researchers and clinical psychologists to approach problems, issues and hypotheses from a multitude of different backgrounds and allow a wider range of scrutiny to verify their findings in keeping with sc ientific inquiry.Ultimately this allows the cognitive scientist/psychologist to create models of predictive capability that are reproducible which, in Psychology, allows for a greater understanding of the human mind and its mechanisms. 5 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology Research Method’s The research methods of cognitive psychology observe and record how we take in information from the physical world, the response time of reactions and how we process this information to perceive it. â€Å"The method’s of cognitive psychology stem from those used by early German researchers studying memory, association and processes.These tools became a mainstay of experimental psychology. As cognitive psychology began to form and become interdisciplinary, methods from other research fields were borrowed and modified for use in the study of cognitive processes. Research methods are the tools by which we come to know and understand, as well as test ideas and develop new ones. â₠¬  (Solso, et al. , 2008) i) Reaction Time Studies: Reaction time studies are used to study cognitive processes and seem to be a defining methodology in the cognitive approach.An example is Donder’s complication studies, in which a subject’s response speed to a white light being turned on was recorded and compared to a yellow light being turned on. Researchers believed early on that the time difference between the two responses could have been attributed to additional processing that it took to differentiate the yellow from the white light. â€Å"Reaction time studies fundamentally rely on the assumption that cognitive activity takes time and that one stage is completed before the other starts. † (Solso, et al. , 2008) ii) Priming studies:Priming studies have been used by psychologists for quite some time. With the invention of computer technology, specifically brain imaging technology, priming studies are becoming more popular. â€Å"In priming studies a stim ulus is briefly presented (a prime) and then, after a delay, a second stimulus is presented and a participant is asked to make some judgement regarding the second stimulus, such as, â€Å"Is the second stimulus the ‘same’ as the first? † (Solso, et al. , 2008) There are two types of priming effects. The Semantic priming Effect and the Object priming effect.The Semantic priming effect is that by activating one item, the acceptability of the second item is enhanced. The Object priming effect is typically in two stages. The first stage is the presentation of an object. This is followed by an interval that may be as short as a millisecond or as long as several months. In the second stage an object similar to the first object is presented, it could be changed, degraded or rotated etc. The participants’ accuracy in remembering the first object is then measured and sometimes the reaction time is measured as well. Tulving & Schacter, 1990) 6 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Ap plied Psychology iii) Eye-Tracking studies: A large portion of the brain is used for interpreting and processing visual sensory information. Researchers have developed techniques to track the movement of eyes in order to determine where a person’s eye is fixed which in particular helps to study people reading, what sentence they are looking at and where they look next. Eye-tracking studies have helped researchers to discover that people who have dyslexia have different eye movements to people who do not have dyslexia. v) Lateralisation Studies Lateralisation studies developed from the idea that the two sides of the brain are responsible for different cognitive functions, in an effort to localise functions within the brain, Broca and Wernicke’s area’s ( centres that are responsible for speech and language) are located on one side of the brain, the left side, this implies that the brain has localised area’s for different functions, these studies were partic ularly important in the area of memory study and studies of amnesiac patients, through the methodology used in lateralisation studies, i. e. riming type tests, and brain imaging we know that the hippocampus is responsible for memory, although there are two hippocampi. There are also more invasive techniques used in lateralisation studies using patients with extreme epilepsy undergoing preventative surgery whereby the corpus collosum, the fibre’s which connect the hemispheres of the brain, are cut. v) Psychophysics Psychophysics is the scientific study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations and perceptions evoked by these stimuli. (Solso, et al. , 2008) Psychophysicists are interested in perceptual thresholds.For example in Weber’s study of perceptual threshold’s he tested a person’s ability to detect weight. If a person was holding a weighted object, how much weight could be added before the person could detect and perceive the difference in weight. vi) Single-cell Studies Single-cell studies are typically conducted in animals as opposed to humans because of their invasive nature. Hubel & Wiesel, who were awarded a Nobel Prize for their 1959 research, mapped the visual cortex of cats. This research involved the opening of the skull of the subject.They had theorised that because single cells communicate with each other via electrical impulses then it would be possible to probe these single cells with a an extremely fine meter to measure the amount of electrical activity in a cell without damaging it, thereby allowing them to evaluate perceptual experience at a cellular level. Hubel & Wiesel basically restrained a cat , opened its skull, probed it’s brain and then showed the cat 7 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology moving images and kept probing until they could record the level of cellular electrical activity.This gave us an insight into how we visual perceive the world and the physical action that takes pl ace in the brain. (Solso, et al. , 2008) Memory, Storage and Models Cognitive Psychology is viewed as a pure science, its accepted theories on memory, for example, are based on laboratory experiments with demonstrable results as well as solid work in case studies. For example the Multi store Model (MSM) by Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968, 1971) cited by (McLeod, 2007) attempted to explain how information is transferred from Short Term Memory to Long Term Memory.This model views sensory memory, STM and LTM as â€Å"permanent structural components† and suggests that memory is made up of a series of stores. MSM likens memory as information flowing through a system. Information is detected by the sense organs and enters the sensory memory. If attended to this information enters the short term memory. Information from the STM is transferred to the long-term memory only if that information is rehearsed. If rehearsal does not occur, then information is forgotten, lost from short term memo ry through the processes of displacement or decay. McLeod, 2007) This model has influenced the study and research of memory and is supported and informed by studies of retrograde and anterograde amnesia. The Working Model of Memory (Baddely & Hitch, 1974), shows that short term memory is more than one store and consists of different components. Similarly, in long term memory different kinds of memory such as addition/subtraction, how to play chess or what we did yesterday are not stored in one ‘hard-drive’ type long term memory store. There are different types of memory, episodic (memory of events), procedural (memory of how to do 8 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology hings) and semantic (general knowledge). This model of memory espouses that rehearsal is the process whereby by we transfer information into Long term memory but that it is not necessary to rehearse in some cases. . We know, now, that the part of the brain that deals with memory is the hippocampus; it i s part of the limbic system and deals with short term memory and long term memory, as well as spatial functions, the hippocampus is shown in this diagram. As we can see, there are hippocampi; there is a hippocampus in both sides of the brain. The hippocampus is part of the cerebral cortex and is located in the medial temporal lobe.Damage to the hippocampus can result in a person being unable to store new memories and is quite devastating to a person’s quality of life. In the case of Clive Wearing, based on Baddely, 1990; Blakemore 1988 as cited in (Gross, 2010), who suffered from anterograde amnesia, we can see the effects of damage to the hippocampus, in this case caused by a rare brain infection caused by the cold sore virus (Herpes Simplex). Mr. Wearing lives almost as if he is frozen in time, constantly believing he has just woken from years of unconscious sleep. He retains developed skills, for example he was the chorus master of the London Sinfonietta.Unfortunately for Mr. Wearing his ability to recall memories from earlier in his life is extremely patchy, at best. Atkinson and Schiffrin regard the kind of memory Deficits displayed by Clive Wearing as ‘perhaps the single most convincing demonstration of a dichotomy in the memory system’ (Gross, 2010) 9 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology Therapeutic Applications Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is based on how our thoughts, feelings and behaviour all interact with each other; our thoughts influence our feelings and behaviour.CBT helps the client to develop alternate ways of thinking and behaving in order to reduce psychological distress. Through reflective processes and tasks such as homework, the client’s maladaptive thought process and behaviour is challenged. Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is a blanket term for different therapeutic interventions that share similar characteristics. Two therapies which form the basis of CBT are Rational Emot ive Behaviour Therapy, developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T.Beck in the 1960’s. Beck puts forward the argument that our emotional reactions are essentially a function of how we construe the world. â€Å"Depressed people see themselves as victims, and Beck sees them as victims of their own illogical self-judgements. Beck’s central idea is that depressed individuals feel as they do because their thinking is dominated by negative schemas. † (Gross, 2010) Beck essentially implies that we interpret our reality by using our cognitive processes and our perception.If our perceptions are skewed because our cognitive processes are maladaptive or our methods of reasoning are incorrect then our emotions and behaviour become distorted from reality. In order to correct emotional or psychological disturbances then we must seek to examine the root of the problem, viewing this through the lens of cognition means that we must correct our thought process in order to correct the symptomatic behavioural and emotional disorder. Beck uses method’s to treat a disorder depending on the disorder that the client suffers from. He stresses the importance of the quality of the relationship between the client and therapist.Beck also places particular emphasis on the client discovering misconceptions for themselves. (McLeod, 2008) Albert Ellis’ Rational Emotional Behavioural Therapy is quite contrasting to Becks method. Ellis Proposes that the therapist should be a teacher and that a warm personal relationship is unnecessary. REBT can also be highly directive, persuasive and confrontational. REBT also uses different methods of approach to a client’s issue depending on the client’s personality. Human cognition can be held responsible for the individual’s successes and accomplishments, according to CBT cognition can also be held responsible for our problems. You are responsible for the outcom e of the situation’ It emphasises control over one’s behaviour and emotions through correcting thought processes. The nature of Cognitive 10 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology Psychology/Science allow cognitive theories to be tested in a variety of situations, for example Rimm & Litvak’s 1969 (McLeod, 2008) study shows that When experimental subjects are manipulated into adopting unpleasant assumptions or thought they became more anxious and depressed.Moreover, many people with diagnosed psychological disorders such as anxiety and sexual disorders have been found to display maladaptive thoughts and assumptions, making a case for the effectiveness of CBT. Aaron Beck’s work in researching depression and order disorders in clinical as well as laboratory settings and testing memory and other cognitive functions, and in particular his outcome studies have shown that CBT can be highly effective. CBT is also used in the treatment of drug abuse, bipolar disor der and in patients with cancer, HIV, OCD, PTSD and schizophrenia.It has also been theoretically applied in the treatment of psychopathy. Evaluation/Personal Learning Upon examining the field of Cognitive Psychology, I have learned that cognitive Psychology is adaptive. It evolves with the times and incorporates new technologies, but also has a serious grounding in scientific methodology in order to correctly examine and understand the human mind. Cognitive Psychology is informed by the greater umbrella that is cognitive science. For example it uses information from computer science and neuroscience in order to better understand the cognitive processes that exist in the human brain.Given that the ‘mind’ is not a physical entity; this style of scientific inquiry may be the best approach in understanding it. There is a good scientific framework underlying Cognitive psychology which then allows the Psychologist to move forward and deal with issues presented by the mind. As we can see in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy, the therapist approaches the abstract nature of the mind by focusing on the underlying mental hierarchy. That being, Cognition, Emotion, Behaviour, in order to treat symptomatic issues, the therapist using this approach must deal with the thought processes that create these symptoms.The most important lesson that I have learned is that, while the mind is an abstract construct and is quite difficult to quantify, quantifiable information about physical constructs such as the brain and general human biology and chemistry and its influences informs the understanding of the human mind. 11 Shane Galvin-061 AT-Applied Psychology Bibliography Baddely, A. & Hitch, G. , 1974. Working Memory. In: G. Bower, ed. The Psychology of Learning and Motivation: Advances in Research and Theory. New York: Academic Press, pp. 47-89.Gerrig, R. J. & Zimbardo. , &. P. G. , 2002. Glossary. [Online] Available at: http://www. apa. org/research/action/glossary. aspx [Accessed 14 November 2012]. Gross, R. , 2010. Psychology The Science of Mind and Behaviour. 6th ed. London: HodderArnold. McLeod, S. , 2007. Atkinson and Shiffrin | Multi Store Model of Memory.. [Online] Available at: http://www. simplypsychology. org/multi-store. html [Accessed 16 November 2012]. McLeod, S. , 2007. http://www. simplypsychology. org/cognitive. html. [Online] Available at: fromhttp://www. implypsychology. org/cognitive-therapy. html [Accessed 10 November 2012]. McLeod, S. , 2008. Simply Psychology, Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. [Online] Available at: http://www. simplypsychology. org/cognitive-therapy. html [Accessed 12 November 2012]. Neisser, U. , 1967. Cognitive Psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Solso, R. L. , Maclin, O. H. & Maclin, M. K. , 2008. Cognitive Psychology. 8th ed. Boston: Pearson. Tulving, E. & Schacter, D. L. , 1990. Priming and Human Memory Systems. Science, Volume 247, pp. 301-306. 12