Tuesday, April 2, 2019
The Nature Of Biomedical Waste Environmental Sciences Essay
The Nature Of Biomedical glom Environmental Sciences essayBiomedical gaga is that fantastic which is generated by the diagnosis and treatment of valet de chambre worlds or animals or by the medical research activities conducted or during the performance of medical equipment.Biomedical redundance can be doubtful and pathogenic by nature. So it needs to be delayd in good order to ensure it doesnt throw off peoples health when its discarded.Any inadequacy in the management of biomedical snitch can result in the following issuesThe deplete can effect a breeding ground for flies shadow result in high try of infections to medical staffIncreased unwarranted risk for the person handling the chemicals and other drop including the sharpsPoor infection control can also lead to spread of infections to patients from the medical centresIf much(prenominal) bolt out is reuse, it can result in diseases bid cholera, plague, tuberculosis, AIDS etc.Also, studies engender shown tha t one-third of the total dispel generated in the medical establishment is hazardous and toxic in nature.Since the mismanagement of biomedical waste can be dangerous to the public, the government (Ministry of Environment and Forests) has provided uniform guidelines and code of practice for the complete nation regarding the management handling of biomedical waste in the Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules,1998.MethodologyFor this figure, I visited the medical centre in Symbiosis Viman Nagar Campus (SVC) for training and interviewed the doctor in charge of the centre Dr. Kiran Mahajan.Though he express that the medical centre of SVC was not performing advanced medical treatments and thence the composition of their centres biomedical waste would differ a lot from that of a hospital, s process he had the knowledge of the waste generated in hospitals and how is it managed. So we could desire on his information.So the most master(prenominal) source of information for this project was the interview with Dr. Kiran Mahajan and secondly, I also looked up the internet for some supererogatory information and facts to enrich my knowledge close to biomedical waste.Some of the important questions I asked Dr. Kiran Mahajan wereQ- What atomic number 18 the items included in (or composition of) biomedical waste?Q- How can it become dangerous if not managed well?Q- What is the solve of managing biomedical waste?Q- Is this process different from the management of other waste?Q- What is the sit condition of biomedical waste management in the medical institutions?Q- Can you find out any inefficiencies in the waste management process?Q- Can you quantify the amount of biomedical waste generated?Q- How is the generated waste inured/disposed off?FindingsI was enlightened with the following information by Dr. Kiran Mahajan and the internet.First of all, biomedical waste includesHuman anatomical waste (tissues, organs, physical structure parts etc.)Animal was te (as above, generated during research/experimentation, from veterinary hospitals etc.) Microbiology and biotechnology waste, such(prenominal) as, laboratory cultures, micro-organismsHuman and animal cell cultures, toxins etc.Waste sharps, such as, hypodermic needles, syringes, scalpels, broken glass etc.Discarded medicinesSoiled waste, such as dressing, bandages, material contaminated with blood etc.Solid waste (disposable items like tubes, catheters etc. excluding sharps),Liquid waste generated from any of the infected landing worlds,Incineration ash, chemic waste.The management issues in bio-medical waste handling areReduction of waste generationSegregation of waste at the place of its generation impartation of the wasteHandling of the wasteProper disposalStages of biomedical waste managementStage 1 Waste generation and storage here(predicate) the waste generated is segregated at the place of its generation and the toxic and hazardous waste is kept in a recrudesce container which is scoreled for its unproblematic identification. Each type of waste generated is kept separately and labelled which encourage helps in its transportation and handling.According to the rules of the government, untreated waste shouldnt be stored beyond a point of 48 hours.Suggestions for segregation and storages of waste in separate containers The container must be strong enough to be able to handle the pre-determined maximum capacity of waste without any damage. It shouldnt have any leakages. The containers should be covered when idle. The sharps must be stored in puncture proof containers subsequently being mutilated.After a bag or container is sealed, a label of the name of the component should be attached to it.Stage 2 battery-acid While collecting waste from the medical establishments, it should be ensured that the waste is properly collected without any leakages and ambiguity in its nature. Attempts can be do to provide a separate corridor for transfer of waste from the storage area to its transport area (It can be ensured that this path is not used for mobility of the patients and visitors).Stage 3 Waste treatment and disposalThe various shipway for treatment and disposal of waste areIncinerationIts the practice of using caloric energy to convert the waste into inert materials and gases.This process has been recommended for human anatomical waste, animal waste, discarded medicines.Autoclave treatmentIt is a process in which the waste material is brought in contact with steam for a clipping period which is sufficient to disinfect the waste material.It is recommended for biotechnology waste, waste sharps. micro-cook treatmentIt is again a wet thermal disinfection technology precisely unlike others (which heat the waste externally), microwave heats the target material inwardly out providing a high level of disinfection.Chemical disinfectingIt involves the use of chemicals like hypochlorite solution to disinfect the waste.It is recommended f or waste sharps, solid, liquid as well as chemical wastes.Sanitary and secured landfillingIt is required in the following circumstances mystic burial of human anatomical waste when a proper preparation of incineration is not available. (Sanitary landfill)Animal waste. (Sanitary landfill)Disposal of autoclaved, microwaved waste. (Sanitary landfill)Disposal of incineration ash. (Sanitary landfill)Disposal of bio-medical waste till such time when proper treatment and disposal facility is in place. (Secured landfill)Disposal of sharps. (Secured landfill)General wasteThe other non-toxic and non-hazardous waste can be taken care of by the following waysComposting of green wasteRecycling of packaging materialProblems/inefficiencies being faced in the fieldSome of the problems/inefficiencies being encountered in the management of biomedical waste areTill now, it has been observed that the statistics presented in the government by the Ministry of environment and forests about the quantity o f biomedical waste are often not certain/accurate.* (See references for source)The Ministry of environment and forests claims that India treats more than 70% of the biomedical waste it generates (which can be misleading if the statistics are wrong as mentioned above).Another problem being faced is the improper disposal of this waste i.e. even though the even out method is being followed the method is not being implemented properly.For. E.g. the incineration of waste is observed to be done at 400 C which is to be done at 1000 C resulting in release of pernicious gases.