Friday, March 29, 2019
Homelessness And The Policy Responses
Homelessness And The Policy ResponsesIn this essay, the neighborly riddles I exhaust elect to write approximatively is Homelessness. I solelyow for alike be exploring unlike perspective of Homelessness and the policy responses and the impact it have on the order of magnitude. The mathematical groups I will focus my discussion on argon young mass and nervy sleepers as the evidence indicates that young stateless person flock experience crude(a) sleeping before securing temporary accommodation.There argon wide ranges of rendering Homelessness and it varies from country to country or among different institutions in the same country. agree to Liddiard, M (2001119) the immediate sense of the term as regularly active by the mass media and politicians, simplistically equates dispossessedness with rooflessness or literally sleeping gross on the street. This is tail assembly be a straightforward and easy to beneathstand interpretation only if this does non reflect th e true scope of the problem so a broader definition of homeless pluralitys include those lacking permanent mansion house and living in a range of unsatisfactory accommodate conditions. They can include those living in temporary hostels, bed and breakfast, night shelters and squatters. However, the licit definition of aboutone homeless is if they do not have a legal business to occupy accommodation or if their accommodation is defective to live in. They also include families and concourses who do not sleep clownish and some are harmonized by friends and family on temporary basis. So from the higher up definition the kindly construction of homelessness are not the small amounts of one-on-one that sleep on the street, looking dirty and smells of alcohol and drugs but comprises of all single who do not have a permanent skillful place of accommodation or without a regular dwelling and are on a waiting list or takes housing public assistance and in temporary accommodati ons. (Giddens 2007)The creator of homelessness varies as many are of the gain that homelessness is a result of personal failings and consider if the economy is going on well, in that location is no excuse to be homeless. Shelter (2007) is of the view that homelessness is cause by a complex interplay between a persons psyche circumstances and adverse structural factors outside their direct control. Among the individual factors include social exclusion, thus when a person lack of capability because they did not have access to good education and dainty job. Ones dispar bestride of drugs and alcohol which result in lack of personal control, lack of social support and debts especially mortgage or rent arrears. Having mental wellness problems and getting involved in crime at an early age also contribute to homelessness. Family breakdown and unresolved disputes are a study factor of homelessness as a result of divorce and separation and a greater mo of men and women are affected. People from institutional understate like having been in compassionate, the armed forces are likely to be affected. Ex-offenders who hump out of prison and lose their friend and families can become homeless and the majority from ethnic minority or ex-asylum seekers who have the right to handicap but have no accommodation. Structural causes of homelessness are more or lessly social and economical in nature often outside the control of individual or family concerned. These may include poverty, lack of affordable housing, un use and the structure and plaque of housing benefit.According to the shelter (2007) the number of households found to be homeless by topical anaesthetic judicature change magnitude 31 percent between 1997/98 and 2003/2004. Historically, homelessness had economic crisis publicity until the 1966 when the BBC screened Ken Loachs film about homelessness Cathy Come Home. This was rest by 12million people and the film alerted the public, the media and the p olitical relation to the scale of the housing crises and indeed Shelter was formed. Another policy response was the 1977 Housing (Homeless Persons) Acts was the first government note to place responsibilities on local authorities to rehouse homeless families and individuals permanently. (Liddiard, M .2001) The 1977 legislation had Priority Need which included women with children or pregnant, vulnerable collectable to age, mental illness, disability, and loss of home by natural disasters. This did not render for everyone who was homeless and the criteria by which local authorities accepted someone as homeless was complex and re unforgivinged. Hence the 1996 section 177 amended to include house servant violence as a priority necessitate but strict eligibility remains (Hill, M 2000).Young people were not covered under the existing legislation and the number of young homeless increased. Existing info on youth homelessness has significant limitation in particular it is exactly po ssible to count young people who are in play with services. According to ONS (2007) it can be estimated that at least 75,000 young people experienced homelessness in the UK in 2006-07. This included 43,075 aged 16-24 of which 8,337 were 16 -17 course old who were accepted as statutorily homeless in the UK and at least 31,000 non-statutorily homeless young people using supporting people services during 2006-2007. The Homelessness Act (2002) changes significantly the way in which homeless in England and Wales is tackled. The priority need categories was extended to includes 16/17 years quite those who social services are responsible for accommodating, care- leavers under the age of 21 who were looked after by social services when they were 16/17 and ex- prisoners, former soldiers and young people leaving care. This act also introduces greater flexibility with regards to social housing allocation giving more people the right to be considered for a council or housing home.The local authorities had a statutory duty to care for all the homeless people but no extra resources were added. This had a great impact on the number of homeless people who were able to relocate permanently at a given time and especially those under priority need.Young people experiencing disruption or trauma during childhood who may be from socio-economic range are at increased risk of homelessness. The main trigger for youth homelessness is relationship breakdown usually parents or step-parent. Among the impact of homeless on young people is poor health as they cannot take care of their health being. They lack basic food and shelter to help them make to become healthy adults and they may suffer from depression. Homelessness can lead to increased levels of non- participation in formal education, training or employment. At quantify leaving school early without a qualification and a decent job may lead some young people into the mistreat of drugs and some have mental health problems.Anot her homeless group of concern is the high-strung sleepers who were in temporary accommodation but some choose to roam the streets, sleeping rough free from the constraints of property and possessions. hardly a large majority has no such wish at all but they have been pushed over the edge into homelessness by factors beyond their control. Once they find themselves without a permanent dwelling, their lives sometimes deteriorate into a spiral of hardship and deprivation. ( Giddens 2009503)The Homelessness Act 2002 extended the definition of the priority need to include stark naked groups of vulnerable people, and requirement that all homeless people receive advice and assistance. In addition, Local Authorities are requires to periodically civilise homeless strategies, including an assessment of levels of homelessness and conduct an audit of those sleeping rough. In 1998 there were approximately 1,850 people sleeping rough on the street of England on any one night. This follows on from the government drive to adulterate rough sleeping by two-thirds in 2002. The Rough Sleeper Unit was tog up in April 1999 to take the lead on delivering this challenging new target and help thousands of people to escape fro good from the humiliation and stroke of life under a blanket in a shit doorway. One of the key principal of the strategy was to understand the cause of rough sleeping, why people end up on the street and what could be done to stop this from happing in the future. The strategy also place the tension on encouraging rough sleepers to become active members of the community, to build egotism esteem and bring on talent as well as helping the individual to become prepared for the life away from the street. confirmatory result soon follows as reductions in rough sleeping were achieves around the country in December 2001 the target set by the government was met ahead of time.The target was met amid the controversy about how rough sleepers were counted and conce rn about the emphasis on street homelessness, which campaigners claimed was only tip of the homelessness iceberg. According to BBC peeled Magazine, housing minister Grant Shapps believes that the government figures on the count of rough sleeper is low and the transcription of counting is flawed. He argues that, under introductory governments system, councils with fewer than 10 rough sleepers were not obligate to count them, and that vagrants sitting up in sleeping bags were not counted as homeless. After Mr. Shapps insisted that councils provide estimates, the England wide figure rose to 1,247, this comprised 440 from 70 authorities that count and 807 from 256 authorities that provided estimates. Despite government investment in hostels to accommodate rough sleepers many are on waiting list as resources and financing is limited. Overcrowding, lack of bed space and sharing rooms or limited facilities with others are also identified as a problem especially if you have a partner or a dog, your choices concentrate considerably. Although the quality of hostels has improved considerably, hostels are often considered unsafe. Over 57 percent of those who pointed in hostels mentioned problems with other residents, including drug and alcohol use, violence, theft, bulling, noise and arguments. And some are of the view that it is not a place to go if you want to stay clean of drugs. People are under the same legislation and the local authorities are unable to permanently house all in priority need.In addition to the above, there are certain groups who are excluded from hostels, such as people from the EU and asylum seekers from non-EU countries who are homeless and destitute in the street of the UK. Their entitlement to benefits is restricted until they have lived and worked and paid into the UK system through national Insurance and tax for one year continuously. much(prenominal) laws bring about social exclusion as street homeless people have reduced access to hea lth care and alveolar services. They face discrimination and general rejection from other people and may have increased risk to suffering from violence and abuse. The impact of rough sleeping is limited access to education, not being seen as suitable for employment and loss of usual relationship with the mainstream. Most of all, living on the streets is monstrous as rough sleepers die young with the average life expectancy at 42.Inequalities among the population still remain one factor of homelessness. Privatisation and residualisation of the council housing meant that fewer houses are available for council tenant. This imposes greater long term risks on the former council tenants while also generating considerable costs for the taxpayer. The process also excludes the many tenants who either reject transfer or are not given the choice and therefore exacerbates inequalities. There are 1.4 million unfit home in England as the majority of homeowners are in the hush-hush sector. The increase of housing association rents and increases in house prices means most people cannot afford a decent accommodation. Low income families are the most affected as 4 million people receiving housing benefit. ( Quilgars D. et al 2008)In conclusion, the problem of homelessness has been tackled by the governments over the years through policies and legislation. However, the problem require long term policy solutions such as changes in the benefit system, the building of more affordable homes and ensuring that a wider cross- section of society benefits from the fruits of economic growth. For many people, there is no single event that results in sudden homelessness instead homelessness is due to a number of unresolved problems draw above building up over time. The achievement of one government policy on rough sleepers indicates much could be done to reduce the impact of homelessness as the number still rises. Ministers are now focalisation on the prevention of rough sleeper and y outh homelessness through a new government homelessness strategy.