Sunday, March 31, 2019
Save Water And Save The Future Environmental Sciences Essay
keep up piddle And Save The Future Environmental Sciences EssayThe above mentioned title would musical note old fashioned and well cognise exactly if you look in to this issue you would understand how true i am and how grave the issue is?Water is essential for maintaining healthy Environments and for social and economic development. As population profits and development seeks for sum upd proportions of surface body of pee and ground peeing system system for the agriculture industrial sectors and domestic sectors the pressure on body of irrigate re initiations intensifies, which leads in excessive pressure on the environment , conflicts among drillrs and tensions. Due to increase in demand and dissipated use and due to continuous increase in the population brought rough stress in fresh pissing re cums.Do you believe a f take on By 2025, 1 800 million plenty depart be living in countries or regions with absolute wet scarcity, and two-thirds of the benevolent being population could be under stress conditions.About 20% of the worlds population live in countries where there is a scarcity of body of weewee and they atomic number 18 unable to access natural body of water source. At demo 2.6 billion lack access to comme il faut sanitation and 1.1 billion heap lack access to safe water. In both developed and development countries climate change is affecting water elections which may cause contrastive types of diseases.A country with increasing threat to its water show is k flatn as water stressed. By 2025 about 1800 million people pass on be living in countries or regions with absolute water scarcity, and two-thirds of the world population could be under stress conditions.Some of the facts to be taken note here and why we crap a responsibility to act?1.70%of the worlds surface is covered by water out of which 97.5% of ihis is salt water. Of the be 2.5% that is fresh water 68.7% isfrozen in ice caps and glaciers trance only 1% of the count resources on earth argon available for human use.2. On an average a Canadian uses 326 liters a sidereal day slice a person in Saharan Africa uses about 10-20 liters a day.3.Out of the discharges that are go down dumped in to the water 90% is from sewage and 70% is from industries polluting the usable water allow for .4. . in developed countries 30% of fresh water supplies are lost due to leakage and the loss may run to a high of 40% to 70% in most cities.5. Canada controls about 20%of the earths fresh water.Distribution of Earths Watersoursource http//ga.water.usgs.gov/edu/waterdistribution.htmlComing in to the real cadence scenario I would take one of the major cities like Mumbai that would justify my contestation here you merchant ship see how water plays an important role day todays human life.Mumbais Water SupplyIf Mumbai British Administrators has not seriously about the agitation over imbibition water chore in 1845 perhaps, would score been as stressed for water as Chennais people are now Like Chennai, Mumbai would also depended on wells and ponds/lakes for its water supply. Due to increase in population ingress of seawater and depletion of ground water sources has been caused in Chennai.Mumbais major water bodies with in the catchmentWater resources in Vaitarna River wash-hand stand and Ulhas River basins convey been identified as there will be an increase in population in the coming years. take the. The plan for Middle Vaitarna is at an advanced stage and a dam will be constructed at a cost of Rs1, 250crore to avail 455mld water. Middle Vaitarna, Gargai and Pinjal are gravity sources, whereas the Ulhas river basin sources will need pumping water adding to the cost 5,108hectares will be submerged, while people of 19 villages will be affected.Before Independence, Tansa was the major source which runs along Bombay-Agra road. by and by independence, water supply to Malabar Hill reservoir and Bhandarwada Reservoir increased as a tunn el was built between vaitarana and tansa, while the remaining areas are served from the major water bodies.Domestic Water inhalationShows the average requirement of water in terms of litres per consumer per day lpcd consumptionMaximumAverageMinimumDrinking,cookingdish washing504030Bathing502515Toilet flushing504030Washing clothes502015 misrepresent clean Gardening2510Car washing5 gist23013590Source http//www.bcpt.org.in/webadmin/publications/pubimages/watersupply.pdfObstacles in the systemsThere was a problem with the water supply though it was laid successfully due to distraction and unaccounted amount of water supply. Moreover, metering errors, low tax rates, billing mistakes and low convalescence rate burden the system.Also, incentives should be offered through rebates on advanced payments, saving practices such as rainwater garner and water recycle.Mumbai Water tariff StructureCategoryWater charges(Rs/1000 Litres)Domestic Stand daub BuildingChawls2.253.50Halls, Hospita ls, Playgrounds, Swimming Pools etc10.50Industries, Dhobi Ghats, Government Premises, and so forth18.00Refineries, Airports, Public Sector Undertakings, etc.25.00 feed course and Hotels38.00Sewerage charges are at 60% of water chargessource http//www.bcpt.org.in/webadmin/publications/pubimages/watersupply.pdfThere was an increase in population by about 11 millions from 1948 till now, which increased the water supply by five propagation during these five decades .By 2021there will be a further increase in population by 25 % and potential to supplement water supply is more than double which put forward be achieved by developing sources in Vaitarna and Ulhas river basins. But these are costly propositions both in human and environmental terms and financially. For Mumbais luxurious need of water, is it f aura to displace people from octet villages in Vaitarna and 19 villages in Ulhas river basins and submerge some 9,000hectares of fertile reason as well as cause environmental degra dation? Instead, can we look at alternativesWater is highly vulnerable to air, ground and charge water befoulment , not only in the form of send source pollution, but also point source ,waste disposal to air or soil in a variety of forms, such as effluent irrigation, dumping, mining wastes or gaseous emissions.Major pressures on water useGrowing population, urbanisation, deforestation, global warming, climatic changes, pollution, rapid industrialisation, droughts and floods are some reasons of the increased pressure on the alive water bodies.Then, there are other factors like poor management of water supply, unending victimisation of resources, massive wastage etc.Population expansion is the single biggest reason cornerstone the increased pressure on fresh water resourcesIndustrial and agriculture-related pollution is another prime contributor. Millions of tons of waste are being accustomed everyday into the lakes, rivers and streams polluting whatever little water we have, making them unfit for human consumption. The growing urbanisation has also increased the pressure on our towns and cities, in which around 48 per cent of the worlds population lives, amounting to almost half of the worlds total water consumption.The bhatsa lake which is located in Thane district, is one of the major source of drinking water to Mumbai. In an incident about 700 kg of dead weight were found floating in the lake . Initially the authorities blamed it on local residents for poisoning the lake water to catch fish. But later tests by Mumbai-based Central Institute of Fisheries Education showed high levels of oil and grease effluents in the water. Local residents say the waste oil has been released by Shahpur-based Liberty embrocate Mills Ltd.Source http//www.rainwaterharvesting.org/Crisis/Industrial-pollution.htmReport on Mithi River Water Pollution by Klean Environmental Consultants Pvt Ltd.Major Pressures on water tintWater smell will also worsen with increasing wate r temperatures and pollution levels. The business relationship positions 122 countries based on their ability to improve the situation and quality of their water . Because of the low quantity and quality of its groundwater which is further combined with heavy industrial pollution and poor treatment of wastewater Belgium is considered as worst . It is followed by 1.Morocco,2. India, 3. Jordan ,4. Sudan , 5. Niger, 6. Burkina Faso, 7.Burundi , 8. Central African Republic and 9. Rwanda. The list of countries with the best water quality is lead by Finland followed by 2.Canada, 3. New Zealand , 4. United Kingdom , 5.Japan , 6.Norway, 7. Russian Federation , 8. Republic of Korea , 9.Sweden and 10.France.Problem faced by the poor in gaining access to water is one of the major concerns in water resource management related to increasing population . By pollution of existing water bodies by industries, poor drainage and runoff from the indiscriminate use of fertilizer and pesticides are furt her aggravating the problem .water has been found to be the second most important income generator after land. These environmental changes have put the rural poor in disadvantaged positionsMajor health-related environmental concerns also include , A high population density in rural areas leads to degradation and violation of natural habitats, the rate of population increase in urban areas outstrips attempts to improve provisions for water supply and sanitation.After all discussions one can clear up note there essential be proper realistic efforts and remedies to be taken by everyone to interdict this problemRain Water Harvesting Ground Water drillEarlier, rainwater was the main source of water supply and it was collected in tanks. People used to measure the height of collected rainwater in the tank and accordingly decide how much to draw from it to make it furthest over the year now, with piped water supply, this traditional way of conservation of water has been forgotten.Mumb ai was blessed with number of tanks like Mumba Devi, Manamala, Babula, Govalia, Gilder, Banganga, etc.Old rules of rainwater harvesting are restored , perhaps, there will be no need for afterlife water supply schemes on Vaitarna and Ulhas river basins. There are many other benefits from rainwater harvesting. The groundwater table will rise, water quality will improve, salinity in water will reduce, cracks in the buildings will be minimised, etc.Rainwater harvesting by capturing runoff from the rooftops / terraces and surrounding surface water will not only increase ground water charge and stop ingress of sea water but will catch Mumbai out of its monsoon floods problem. Water harvesting in Mumbai will reduce rage water discharge as well as reduce the fill up of sewerage treatment, thus controlling the dreadful monsoon floods. Rainwater can be stored in tanks or can be recharged into the groundwater.DesalinationMumbai can make use of abundant availability of seawater, desalinat e for potable water and thus, sum up water supply instead of going in for complex method of constructing dams reservoirs and supporting that systemWater RecyclingAbout 80% of distributed water is discharged as wastewater. If a part of wastewater is do by and re-used, it can cover the projected demand deficiencyAn example of water recycling can be seen at Chatrapati Shivaji Terminus of the Central Railway which fate up a water recycling plant of 0.2million capacity in 1999 at a cost of Rs24lakhThe used water is collected and treated for cleaning concrete aprons of the railway platforms thus saving potable water.Water ConservationAbout 71% of the earths surface is covered with water but 97% of this is seawater, 2% is locked in polar ice caps and glaciers and hardly 1% of water is available as freshwater. Hence, we need to conserve every drivel of water. We have got to develop the habit ofusing less water and filet wasteful and luxurious use of waterIdeally, therefore, the housin g complexes should have proper rain water harvesting system and draw groundwater for non-drinking purposes. Even if water from bore-wells is used for toilet flushing (50lpcd) and cleaning (10lpcd), the load on the piped water supply will come down to 50%. This means that the same piped water supply will be sufficient for double the population. Recycling of the water used for washing is possible by re-using it for watering the garden, further bringing down the load on the overworked system. Desalination of sea water will obliterate the need to set up newer projects that require transporting water from 100km at a high capital cost it will also make that resource available to other needy water scarce areas.